India Needs Fighter Aircraft, Not Just Factories – The visitors present at Aero India this year are feeling deja vu. Back at the previous celebration, the show’s soundtrack hummed fighter planes over offers that wanted to put fighter aircraft through the steps they took. The sound this time is also the same, with the number of participants repeatedly appearing in the air including the Dassault Rafale, Lockheed Martin F-16 and Saab Gripen all on display in the sky. As an addition to intimate chat from salespeople who promise combat capabilities and most importantly, industrial partnerships.
Rafale finally won, but after years of tortuous negotiations, New Delhi finally abandoned the MMRCA program altogether because of the failure to reach a technology transfer agreement. In contrast, 36 units of Rafale fighter jets ordered were still in uncontrolled conditions. Meanwhile, the obsolete fleet of the MiG era that was supposed to replace by the MMRCA is now decaying, eroding the ability of the Indian Air Force. Another fighter intended to be a replacement for some of the old assets made by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Tejas, has been a bad player for years. This aircraft is very slow to enter service after decades of development. This development project also support by https://multibet88.online. The measured against the low level of own ownership, Tejas has indeed made progress, however, with outdated international standards.
This year’s exhibition saw the MMRCA veteran fighter jet fighting on several conditions, which were unclear orders for 100 single-engine fighter jet units, plus Navy information requests for 57 aircraft carrier jet units. Expect two things from agreement. First, the abbreviation for the strange MMRCA will apply to both types of fighter jets. Second is industrial participation and technology transfer, the needs of producers are very high. The distribution of construction work to the local is not all bad, and high-ability aerospace work will delight global politicians. That said, New Delhi places too much emphasis on the value of the industry in buying fighter planes, rather than aiming for the military in their acquisition. Strategic capabilities could not obtain only for mere economic benefits. If the acquisition of a new Indian fighter jet fails the same as the MMRCA program, then the Indian air force will continue to stare at its aging fleet.
Theories of Neorealism in Indian-Pakistani Conflic – The neorealism theory basically emphasizes how the international system of anarchy turns out to be peaceful with the concept of balance of power, where previously in the theory of state realism was an actor who was selfish and wanted to rule himself but apparently in the theory of neorealism can also cooperate. The Kashmir conflict involving bordering countries, India and Pakistan has not reached an agreement until now, eventually encouraging new problems such as the arms race. Both India and Pakistan feel that one of them is a threat that can attack at any time. This perception caused the two countries never have a positive outlook on each other. This makes the issue of the arms race between the two countries not finished.
Balance of Power refers to a condition of strong countries to achieve a balance or equilibrium. Balance of power is a concept of Neorealism thinking. According to Mearsheimer quoted in the book “Balance of Power in World History” by Stuart J. Kaufman, Richard Little, and William C. Wohlforth, great powers will try to maintain their hegemony in the world. The efforts of this country to maintain their hegemony can finish by balancing the strength of their countries with each other. They compete with each other so as not to miss, so that later balance or equilibrium will emerge, but unfortunately, the concept of balance of power resulted in an arms race or an arms race. If interpreted as arms race is a continuous competitive effort (militarily) carried out by two or more countries, India and Pakistan has the capability to make weapons stronger.
The arms race that took place between India and Pakistan not only caused negative impacts for both countries, such as the emergence of a sense of distrust with each other so that the conflicts between the two countries could not be resolved, but also affected the South Asian region. In the field of security, this arms race will have an impact on the creation of negative peace and the emergence of tensions in the countries of the South Asian region because at any time this arms race could lead to heated relations between India and Pakistan and lead to war between the two countries. The dispute in several Asian countries has also worsened the economic and business sectors which can be seen as declining income figures reported by site http://22.214.171.124. In addition, a sense of distrust between India and Pakistan also made the Kashmir conflict not find a solution because there were no good intentions between the two countries.
Thoughts on India-Chinese Military Fellowship – After earlier China had an argument with India over the dispute over the Doklam plateau, the Himalayas, now India is strengthening its alliance with China marked by an agreement to expand military relations. Chinese Defense Minister Wei Fenghe, on a trip to India, told Indian Prime Minister Narendera Modi this week the friendship between the two countries returned to ancient times. The results of the meeting were decided to expand relations between their armed forces in terms of training, joint training and other professional interactions. These two countries grew into two new competing forces at the regional level, marked by the development of nuclear weapons, a developing economy, expanding military budgets and appearing to compete to have influence in regions in South Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and Africa.
American capitalists who are full of hypocrisy expose the truth that there is interference from Western colonialism policies over the future of India. At present India considered to be racing economically. India also wants to end its poverty. Behind capitalism, India opened this country to the destruction of the economy through capitalist and colonialist policies. Democracy guarantees the privatization of large sources of income and then burdens the entire population by retreating taxes to cover the shortfall. The Indian rulers wanted to promise more than before because they were fully committed to the current capitalist system and agreements with colonialist financial institutions.
The US wants to borrow Indian power to rival China’s political and military aggressiveness. At the same time, the US controls Pakistan to compete openly with India. The US borrowed the power of India and Pakistan to stem China’s political and military expansion, while using both countries to stem the potential of a new Islamic Khilafah, which could potentially stand in South Asia and Central Asia. Against Pakistan, the US continues to work to bury the Kashmir problem in order to facilitate the rise of India as the dominant power rivaling China and Russia. The US is working to form a peace agreement in Afghanistan with the support of Pakistan, to secure a permanent US military presence there, right on the doorstep of the world’s only Muslim nuclear-armed nation. Ironically, the Pakistani ruler announced his willingness to ally with the US and support his plans for India and Afghanistan.
Mahatma Gandhi, Father of Anti-Violence in India that Inspires the World – Of all the drama and the struggle against colonialism in the 20th century, there is one very famous story and so influences similar struggles in various other places. The story of this great struggle is driven by a figure who is considered one of the most important people of the 20th century by Times magazine, 5x nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize winner, and his birthday today (October 2) is commemorated by the United Nations as the International Day of Non-Violence. The figure in question is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, or better known as Mahatma Gandhi, a Father of Indian Nations, the most important icon and symbol of the 20th century in the anti-violence movement throughout the world. The process of Gandhi’s struggle throughout his life even inspired other great figures to follow similar movements in various parts of the world, some of which were Nelson Mandela (Father of South African Nations), and Martin Luther King Jr. (American civil rights fighter).
Upon his return from Europe, Gandhi continued the internal struggle to eliminate discrimination in the lowest Hindu caste (dalit), which for thousands of years considered an unclean, homeless, and indigent group in Indian Hindu culture. On September 20, Gandhi resumed the “fast to death” oath as a form of insistence that Hindu officials could form an agreement to abolish the caste system. Gandhi’s stubborn attitude made the whole country and even the world shocked. Gandhi’s enormous influence made Hindu leaders start accepting dalit people whom they had previously considered unclean in their temples. Only because of the influence of Gandhi, the conservative culture of Hinduism for thousands of years in India underwent major reforms. Gandhi gave a new designation to the dalit, namely harijans means “Children of God”. Gandhi’s extraordinary work in influencing the Indian nation also affected the perspective of the liberation movement in other parts of the world. Through the principle of his life, Gandhi seemed to be giving a hard slap to the superiority of the United Kingdom government known as the most noble and civilized at that time that the humanitarian principle of nonviolent resistance was not something that could be underestimated.
However, Gandhi remained an ordinary human being who did not free from mistakes and controversies. In today’s modern world, there are some academics who consider that Gandhi’s actions to demand Indian freedom from Great Britain are less strategic because they are too fast, while India at that time was still very difficult to be controlled and independently economically and politically. The anti-violence principle that Gandhi believes often criticized as a naive act that throws away lives. Apart from that, it seems too difficult for us to judge which Gandhi’s policies are right, which are wrong. After all, Gandhi had served his role very well in an effort to liberate his people. From a shy young man, nervous when talking, he turned into a liberation activist who had succeeded in liberating his people by remaining firm in holding the principle of the road without violence until the end of his life. Such as the freedom of people to gamble and play online on https://homebet88.online website at this time, and the point is that they do not interfere with others.
Tycoon Plays a Big Role in the Feast of Indian Democracy – Indian tycoons play an important role in the democratic feast of the world’s largest population. Campaign funding to tacit support, has become a hot issue that continues to grow. The Prime Minister (PM) of India, Narendra Modi, received substantial funding support from investors. Observers view this as raising concerns about the integrity of the democratic process. On the other hand, the Congress Party leader, Rahul Gandhi, tried to take advantage of the fighter jet agreement that affirmed businessman Anil Ambani. Meanwhile, tycoons Vijay Mallya and Nirav Modi received support from the UK. Polls in India are increasingly expensive. Party candidates judged as sufficiently dependent on funding support from anonymous entrepreneurs. As a result, transparency is fairly minimal and thick with conflicts of interest. Analysts view the flow of traditional funds, for example from party membership, to continue to decline. As a result, the party increasingly relies on wealthy donors to fund the campaign. Data compiled by the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), the election watchdog, shows that in 2017-2018, companies and individuals contribute 12 times more to the BJP Party than the other six national parties, including the Congress Party.
The BJP Party has saving funds of 4.37 billion rupees, equivalent to US $ 63.3 million. Meanwhile, the Congress Party only saves funds of around 267 rupees. From there, reflected the relatively large disparity in funding in the elections. Indian business people seemed less enthusiastic about Modi’s nomination this time. Especially after the cancellation of high-value banknotes and the application of new tax policies that disrupt economic growth. However, they might still choose Narendra Modi, because they feared the victory of Gandhi’s coalition could stop the much-needed economic reforms.
Opposition accused the government of removing restrictions on company contributions two years ago. Then, introduce a funding scheme that given anonymously, through election bonds purchased from banks. There are some rumors that also mention the election fund came from the help of one of the local.
Last Friday, the Indian Supreme Court ordered a number of political parties to reveal the identity of donors. Exactly, after activists opposed the government bond system. Elections are increasingly expensive for various structural reasons. Population growth, increasing political competition, voter expectations persuaded in the form of cash, along with technological developments, making costs for media and digital outreach even greater. A number of tycoons are called not explicitly expressing support for political party candidates. They may be afraid of supporting the wrong horse.
Indian Recipe for Eradicating Corruption, Is It Impactful? – India decides to withdraw currency denominations of 500 and 1000 rupees from circulation. This step was taken to cut corruption, attract the circulation of illegal money from the market, and stop the supply of logistics for terrorist groups. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi is currently racing against time. Modi’s commitment to eradicate corruption and eradicate tax evasion is increasingly being tested ahead of his two-year term of office. This further prompted Modi to announce a policy of drastically replacing 500 rupees with new money and withdrawing 1,000 rupees from circulation. Modi’s decision sparked mixed reactions from the public. Most politicians and entrepreneurs support Modi’s move, while the voices opposing him are not very influential. However, at the grassroots level, this policy immediately triggered extraordinary activity among Indian people.
The Indian government under Narendra Modi has so far put in place a tax amnesty program to attract money belonging to its citizens, both illegal and legal as well as at home or abroad, as the main target. However, the results obtained through this program are still not optimal. CNN noted that India had lost potential funds to reach 100 million US dollars due to tax evaders, including those who hid their money abroad. Indians who obey pay taxes are only 2 percent of the population. This happens because most Indians work in the informal sector which is almost untouched by taxes. By withdrawing 1,000 rupees, the Indian government wants to force all “gray” money that is still hidden, both domestically and abroad, to flow to the market and can be detected. Eradicating corruption is also one of the key reasons for this withdrawal. When Modi took office in 2014, the Transparency International version of India’s corruption index was ranked 85 out of 175 countries with a score of 38. A year later, India’s score remained at 38, even though the ranking rose to 76 from 175 countries. India also recognize as the most corruption country, money from the corruption cases they clean by political money laundry due many corruption case is cover by Modi government. Company also involve to help prevent this money laundry practice, by not allowing local people to play on their casino except foreign people, but they still easily escape the law by do bribe with India Goverment. That means eradicating corruption in India is still not optimal.
Withdrawal of money with a nominal 500 rupees has a reason that is not purely a financial consideration. Withdrawal of 500 rupees was made because the government sniffed out attempts to counterfeit money by “cross-border terrorist groups” to finance their terror activities. Apart from the high targets set by Modi, the government will face enormous challenges in terms of implementation. The majority of Indian residents still glorify the cash method in their various types of transactions. This makes the amount of cash circulating in the community very large. However, Modi seems to be going ahead. He was determined to carry out this policy, complete with various progressive rhetoric which he used in front of his people. The Indian people are now halfway to making their sacrifices. Modi’s next task was to immediately prove the influence of this policy on the Indian economy.
As a country of 1.3 billion people and more than 800 million of them have voting rights in elections, India often bears the title of “the largest democracy in the world. At the age of 70 years, this country is proud of achievements in the economic sector that now occupies seventh and the fourth largest military force in the world, the achievements above are some of the targets of India which were successfully achieved by Narendra Modi’s government.
Pursuing ambition to Become a global power, the Modi government boosted the development of public infrastructure to transportation facilities and changed several regulations that were considered to hinder foreign investment. Now the Indian economy managed to overtake the position – G7 member countries – who were in eighth position. India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reached $ 2.08 billion, while Italy amounted to $ 1.8 billion. From the consumption sector, Modi’s economic reforms shifted China as a market for motorbikes and scooters in 2016. India in recent years has become the target market for world producers, ranging from motor vehicles to smart phones. Now India is the third largest market in the world after China and the United States. India’s position as one of the main markets is likely to continue in the future. The latest PricewaterhouseCoopers study predicts that in 2050 India will occupy the second position as the world’s largest market shifting the US to third place.
The concept of power in International Relations is traditionally defined as something that is relational: ability A influences behavior B to get the desired results. In the book Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power leading scientist Joseph Nye separates three dimensions of power: the influence of utilizing economic incentives, military use and the ability to co-opt others with a soft power approach. India clearly has three elements as capital to become a global power.
The Prime Minister (PM) of India, Narendra Modi probably has a big chance to win the 2019 general election. However, Narendra Modi faced with the challenge of the fragile prospects of the Indian economy, if he wins the election and runs the second period of his administration. Observers considered that the strong support for the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which carries Narendra Modi as Prime Minister (PM) of India, among others, driven by the success of Narendra Modi’s government in increasing investor confidence during his five years of leadership. Besides that, the handling of Narendra Modi who is firm about tensions with Pakistan considered to increase the chances of winning the BJP Party in the biggest general election in the world, which held in stages on 11 April-19 May 2019.
Investors also saw good reasons for the victory of the ruling party in the polls because the Indian stock market has been running well for the past five years. Since Modi’s inauguration in May 2014, India’s largest stock index, Nifty, has increased 28 percent against the US dollar (US), while the MSCI Emerging Markets index has lost around 1%. However, there are some challenges that could threaten the second period for Modi, one of the most serious is the pressure of funds that have been trailing short-term money markets since September 2018, due to defaults from extensive infrastructure and IL & FS financial groups.
Tension has focused on non-bank financial companies or NBFC, which relies heavily on wholesale funding and has been an important driver of India’s credit growth in recent years. In months of crisis, retail investors remain suspicious of fixed-income mutual funds that play a key role in the debt market. That has pushed borrowing costs for middle creditors, namely the deployment of Triple A and Single A debt letters has increased by more than 140 basis points since September 2018, to almost 3.8 percentage points.
It is interesting to learn and know the world of higher education in India. Before Indian Independence in 1937, one of the universities in India offered Albert Einstein to become a chancellor with high fees. He did not accept the offer because he preferred to teach at Princeton University in America. There are number of things we need to know about India. Chess games come from here. This country is the center of information technology development in Asia, second in the world after America. The center is in Bangelore, which is nicknamed the Silicon Valley of India and in Hyderabad, which is also nicknamed “Cyberabad.” India has the oldest tertiary institution in the world, namely Takshila which was founded in 700 BC. India has the world’s best business schools affiliated with some of the world’s best business schools. Many reliable IT business people are born here.
About one million Indians are billionaires. The companies that invest in India, export their products to all corners of the world. In the field of medicine, India was the first to document the plastic surgery process. IITB Mumbai which is the number one university in India, has so many alumni who work in world-leading companies such as Apple, Google, NASA, Microsoft, and several other multi-national companies. This university explored by Syiah Kuala University, Almuslim University, and Malikussaleh University to cooperate in student exchange programs. Because of prioritizing science and technology, the low caste group living in the countryside freed of tuition by the Government of India. They got free facilities to stay in a student hostel with free breakfast, lunch and dinner. Imagine, their number can reach ten millions of people.
Therefore, we do not need to be surprised when meeting Indian educated people who have more than one bachelor’s degree. This is due to the impact of the attention and full support of the Government of India in providing free facilities or low tuition fees with relatively short study time from school to college. We do not need to hesitate to determine the choice of study in a country that has long and mature engaged in science and technology education. In India, we can study at a university whose quality is comparable to campuses in America, Europe, Japan, South Korea, or Australia. Besides the relatively cheap tuition fees, there we can learn anthropologically in diversity and simplicity. From a simple and pluralistic environment but capable of giving birth to world-class and modest humans.
Victims of terror attacks reported more and more in recent years, but the biggest contributor to death in India comes from love and things related to broken heart. In the period 2001 to 2015, love became the biggest reason officially for murder cases. There are 38.585 murder cases, 79.189 suicides due to love, and 260 thousand female abduction cases due to marriage motives. With these figures, in India there are 7 cases of murder, 14 cases of suicide, and 47 cases of kidnapping because of the process of elopement, whereas cases of death due to terror in India in the same period reached 20,000 civilians and security forces. Data shows that the Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh regions have the highest number of murder cases in the name of love. Usually the reason for the murder or suicide caused by rejected love that results in violence, a sad love story so suicide, or anger in a relationship due to class and caste in India. Men themselves according to data are indeed three times more likely to experience suicide deaths than women in India. One explanation is that men, especially at younger ages, tend to be more impulsive and more likely to commit suicide attempts in more deadly ways (such as using firearms).
Access to lethal facilities during a crisis someone wants to commit suicide is a major contributing factor to suicide. Therefore, the government of India suggests to not leaving people who want to commit suicide alone with dangerous drugs, sharp objects, firearms, rope and the like. The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention recommends that all people immediately invite people around them who show signs of wanting to commit suicide, talk openly. Many people think suicide is a taboo and no need to discussed, but in fact, the people who want to commit suicide need to talk to them who can help and avoid them from the reckless action.
Of course, not everyone in India understands psychology, psychiatry or mental health science. However, everyone needs to keep talking to the people around them who want to kill themselves. The medical world recognizes this kind of thing as ‘broken heart syndrome’. This syndrome can occur because someone has experienced severe stress due to the hurt he experienced. In addition, heartbreak due to death can also be a cause. The risk of death for people who are broken heart considered greater. Medical data said the risk of death often occurs in the first 6 months after a broken heart. From the results of these studies, it is highly recommended for anyone who is experiencing a broken heart so as not to hide his or her feelings. You can tell the closest people slowly. This believed to be a way to reduce the stress burden that is in mind that will decrease the number of deaths caused by love in India.
In 2016, WWF and the Global Tiger Forum announced that there were 3,890 tigers around the world that were still alive. This number has increased because in 2010 there were only 3,200 tigers in the wild. According to The New York Times, countries such as India and Nepal have succeeded in increasing the tiger population through conservation efforts and the addition of territories when conducting national surveys. There were 2,226 and 198 tigers living in India and Nepal. India Times reported that India began paying attention to tigers in 1973 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi launched the Project Tiger program. At that time, there were only 268 tigers in the country. The rise of hunting, conflict with humans, and trophy hunting or hunting activities for recreation make fewer tiger populations. One of Project Tiger’s agenda is to ensure that tiger habitat in the form of a nature reserve remains. In 1973 to 1974, a total of five nature reserves were determined by the government.
However, over time the number increased to 50 nature reserves. The government views the need to expand tiger habitat because these animals have extensive cruising. In addition, this step was taken to reduce conflict with humans which is one of the main causes of reduced tiger population. Not only that, the Indian government also tightened the security of nature reserves from hunting activities. Living tigers are also marked by a tracking collar so that animal activity can be monitored. Nature reserves that become tiger habitat must be free from livestock and human populations. Relocation of residents from the core nature reserve area was carried out and this activity became the most important program of Project Tiger which is now handled by The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). With this step, the tiger prey in the nature reserve is no longer reduced due to human activities so that the large cat population is increasing.
As with India, Nepal has long paid more attention to the conservation of tigers and wild animals. NTCA said that efforts to save the animals began when the National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act was created in 1950. Prabin Poudel in The Diplomat said more than 23 percent of the total area in Nepal was designated as a protected area. There are 12 national parks, one nature reserve, one hunting area, and six conservation areas. Each national park in this case has a buffer zone or buffer zone that serves to protect the core conservation area from human negative actions.
The latest satellite data from 2000 to 2017 shows a greening pattern that is very prominent in China and India and overlaps with other countries’ agricultural land. The study, uploaded in Nature Sustainability, uses the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of the United States Space and Space Agency (NASA) that uses satellite technology to document the surface of the earth every day. The green vegetation area shown by the satellite in this study was caused by direct factors and indirect factors. The direct factor is management of land use by humans while indirect factors such as climate change, fertilization of carbon dioxide, precipitation of nitrogen, and recovery from natural disturbances.
Satellite data shows that globally one third of the vegetation area is green and only five percent is brown. 6.6 percent of the green vegetation area is in China. China contributes 25 percent to the increase in global greening efforts. China and India, two developing countries, contribute the most in efforts to reforest the land. Greening in China comes from forests at 42 percent and agricultural land by 32 percent while in India most of it comes from agricultural land at 82 percent and forests at only 4.4 percent. The study sees China has implemented several large-scale programs to restore and protect its forests. While in India the production of fertilizer and irrigation use in agricultural land makes this country increase its food production.
However, it is not known how long the earth will be green because there are signs that explain it will not last long. Some new research says when the planet starts to warm up and the soil is dry, the plants will lack water and cause a decrease in plant growth. Fertilizing carbon dioxide and climate change is still important. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is still responsible for the green changes seen in 17 years. Although studies from show that human land use such as forest and agricultural land management has a greater impact than previously thought. This finding is somewhat difficult for scientists to use computer models to study the earth. Fertilizing carbon dioxide is relatively easy to calculate with equations even though there are several other disorders. Human land use is rather random and very difficult to predict.
Seeing India’s long-standing literacy culture, it’s no wonder that today India is known as a country that produces reliable programmers for technology companies in the United States. Former United States ambassador to India Richard Verma estimates that 70 percent of the 85,000 H-1B visas are issued for Indian workers in 2016. The H-1B visa is a visa that is popular with high-ability foreign workers, especially programmers and the like. By pocketing an H-1B visa, a foreign worker can at least work full-time in the United States for six years. To get the visa, there must be a company that wants to become a sponsor and is willing to hire foreign workers, at least $ 10,000.
Now, there are also some giant technology companies in the United States headed by people of Indian descent. The most famous is Satya Nadella who became CEO of Microsoft and Sundar Pichai CEO of Google. Many talented Indian talents who migrated to the United States were none other because the country’s immigration policy was quite friendly to immigrants. In fact, as Obama once said aloud that “we will always be a nation of immigrants.” But everything has changed since Trump’s policy with the slogan “American’s first”.
Indeed, the prospective nomads of India in the field of technology, do not need to worry about Trump’s executive policies that are discriminatory for immigrants. Reliable programmers are now needed on almost all lines of life. Non-tech companies also need this expertise to handle their services, which are increasingly dependent on the internet. In addition, with difficulty entering the United States for technology workers from India, India will get the best talents that will work for local companies there. They certainly will contribute the best ability to build the world of Indian technology. In addition, The New York Times also calls India “the new China for American internet-based companies.” Many US technology companies will make their base in India. That way, high-skilled workers will stay in India, no need to go far to find work.
Paytm is a rising non-cash payment system in India that serves payments for almost all types of transaction needs in modern stores to traditional markets. In India, the muddy market for vegetables has penetrated the Paytm network with special-marked merchant stalls, something that is not easy to apply in other countries. This application includes easy to apply in the field including on the market. Users who open the Paytm application on smart phones only need to scan the QR code installed in the store or merchant when shopping. All transactions, can be completed by Paytm. This is better known as a cashless society. This term is not new in the world. The benefits are positive, in terms of ease of transaction, security, and of course efficiency. How much paper can be saved by reducing the currency circulating in the community later. Easy operation, made Paytm services increase as the Indian government policy conducted demonstration in November 2016. Initially demonetization was carried out to limit the movement of black money which became a major program to eradicate corruption by PM Modi.
Demonetization made the banknotes worth 500 and 1,000 rupees removed or withdrawn by the government. The rupee with two fractions controls 86 percent of the circulation of money in India. Paytm aka “Pay Through Mobile,” successfully took the impact of the policy and made it the largest digital wallet in India with 220 million users. Paytm Utilization has taken root in remote areas in India. There are 82,746 traders in remote areas of India who are connected to Paytm. Of course this is a rapid progress, because in 2012 86.6 percent of transactions in India were still made by cash. Statista noted that in 2017 the total value of digital payment transactions in India is estimated to reach $ 43.8 billion.
India has quickly succeeded in switching to digital transactions. In general, India presents two methods of payment or cashless transactions or non-cash transactions. First, utilizing USSD, the technology we usually use to check pulses * 123 #. Second, using UPI technology, aka the Unified Payment Interface, this technology is used in the Paytm application. Paytm, obviously not the only digital wallet in India, the rest is Aadhar pay. Aadhar pay is somewhat special, this digital wallet was directly promoted by agen bola and PM Modi. This application has transaction service capabilities, where users simply put their fingers when transacting. Unfortunately Aadhar pay is far behind compared to Paytm. Paytm is moving faster. This application successfully obtained permission from the Indian central bank, Reverse Bank of India. Paytm can operate like other conventional banks, but has some limitations of banking functions.
In general, it turns out that acts of violence often occur in India, especially women. Violence not only befalls travelers, but also on local women. The crime cases that are rampant among women in India are rape. The case of rape which has attracted much public attention is what happened to Aruna Shanbaug who works as a nurse. He experienced sexual violence brutally by Sohanlal Bhartha Walmiki in the basement of the Hospital in India. Aruna Shanbaug experiences blindness and damage to the brain that causes coma for more than 40 years. The Aruna family even wanted to inject dead to end Aruna’s suffering, but the law in India did not legalize the practice of lethal injection.
Various crimes against women later inspired a Calcutta artist, Sujatro Ghosh made a new project. The project is to compare trends in protection of cows and high violence against women. The project was launched by showing women wearing cow masks posing in public places such as on trains or relaxing at home. In India, in order to protect cows, most people are willing to commit violence and that is considered reasonable and justified. Various methods are used to protect cows. After Narendra Modi became prime minister, the protection of cattle was further enhanced. Penalties for smuggling cows or slaughtering are also strengthened since Modi took the lead.
On the other hand, women are increasingly insecure. As an indication, almost every day there are women who experience rape in India. The 2015 Indian Times report mentions 34,651 rape cases in India. Gang rape reached 2,113 cases in that year. Crimes against women such as sexual harassment included being forced to take off their clothes, be spotted, and stalking reached 84,222 cases. That is a registered case. Abduction of women reached 59,277 cases in 2015. Forcing women to marry is the main reason for the number of abductions of women in India. In 2015, almost 54 percent of female abductions were made to force them to get married. New Delhi is the city with the highest crime against women. Another city is Assam, which is in second place. In a World Economic Forum survey, New Delhi was included in the list of the fourth most unsafe cities for a woman. These situations underlie Ghosh to juxtapose trends in the protection of cattle, animals that are worshiped by many residents, with increasing violence against women. Cows in India are in fact safer than being women there.