Here’s a complete list of Mughal Emperors (20) from the first to the last detailing their reign period & other information. Also, check out their photos

A branch of Timurid dynasty came on the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and ruled until their powers dwindled in the 18th century with the establishment of the British Empire in the 18th century.

In all, 20 Mughal Emperors ruled India for 3 centuries. Here we share the names and works of all the Mughal Emperors in India starting from the founder Babur till the last Bahadur Shah Zafar II.

mughal emperors india The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Babur – The Founder of Mughal Emperor

mughal emperor babur The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Zahir-ud-din Muhammad

Birth – 23 February 1483

Reign – 30 April 1526 – 26 December 1530

Death – 26 December 1530 (aged 47)

After winning the Battle of Panipat in 1526, Babur invaded the Indian Subcontinent, thus laying the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India.

Humayun

mughal emperor humayun The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun

Birth – 17 March 1508

Reign – 26 December 1530 – 17 May 1540 and 22 February 1555 – 27 January 1556

Death – 27 January 1556 (aged 48)

In 1540, Hamayun was overthrown by Sher Shah Suri but he returned to the throne in 1555 after the death of Sher Shah Suri’s son and Successor Islam Shah Suri..

Akbar (Akbar-e-Azam)

mughal emperor akbar The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Jalal-ud-din Muhammad

Birth – 14 October 1542

Reign – 27 January 1556 – 27 October 1605

Death – 27 October 1605 (aged 63)

Mughal Emperor Akbar actually consolidated the Mughal Empire in India.

Jehangir

mughal emperor jehangir The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim

Birth – 20 September 1569

Reign – 15 October 1605 – 8 November 1627

Death – 8 November 1627 (aged 58)

Akbar’s son, Jahangir, ruled the Mughal empire at its peak, but this man was addicted to opium, and neglected the affairs of the state.

Shahyrar

Birth Name – Salef-ud-din Mohammed Shahryar

Birth – 16 January 1605

Reign – 23 January 1628 (Aged 23)

Death – Unknown

Claimed the throne but lost it within 3 hours

Shah Jahan (Shah-Jahan-e-Azam)

mughal emperor Shah Jahan I of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram

Birth – 5 January 1592

Reign – 8 November 1627 – 2 August 1658

Death – 22 January 1666 (aged 74)

During the reign of Shah Jahan, splendor of the Mughal court reached its peak as exemplified by the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan is known for building Taj Mahal.

Alamgir

mughal emperor aurangzeb Alamgir I of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb

Birth – 4 November 1618

Reign – 31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707

Death – 3 March 1707 (aged 88)

Aurangzeb expanded the Mughal empire to include almost the whole of South Asia, but after his death in 1707, many regions of the empire revolted openly.

Azam Shah

mughal emperor Muhammad Azam of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Abu’l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam

Birth – 28 June 1653

Reign – 14 March 1707 – 8 June 1707

Death – 8 June 1707 (aged 53)

Bahadur Shah

mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu’azzam

Birth – 14 October 1643

Reign – 19 June 1707 – 27 February 1712 (4 years, 253 days)

Death – 27 February 1712 (aged 68)

He ruled diplomatically –  tranquilized the Rajputs, made settlements with the Marathas, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab

Jahandar Shah

mughal emperor Jahandar Shah of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Ma’az-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Bahadur

Birth – 9 May 1661

Reign – 27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713 (0 years, 350 days)

Death – 12 February 1713 (aged 51)

Highly influenced by his Grand Vizier Zulfikar Khan.

Farrukhsiyar

mughal emperor farrukhsiyar of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Farrukhsiyar

Birth – 20 August 1685

Reign – 11 January 1713 – 28 February 1719 (6 years, 48 days)

Death – 29 April 1719 (aged 33)

In 1717, he granted a farman to the East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights for Bengal. This strengthened their posts on the east coast thus creating a problem for all the upcoming Mughal Emperors.

Rafi ud-Darajat

mughal emperor Rafi ud Darajat of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Rafi ud-Darajat

Birth – 30 November 1699

Reign – 28 February – 6 June 1719 (0 years, 98 days)

Death – 9 June 1719 (aged 19)

Shah Jahan II

Birth Name – Rafi ud-Daulah

Birth – June 1696

Reign – 6 June 1719 – 19 September 1719 (0 years, 105 days)

Death – 19 September 1719 (aged 23)

Syed Brothers however became the power brokers here.

Muhammad Shah

mughal emperor Muhammad Shah of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Roshan Akhtar Bahadur

Birth – 17 August 1702

Reign – 27 September 1719 – 26 April 1748 (28 years, 212 days)

Death – 26 April 1748 (aged 45)

Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Fought a long war with the Marathas and also lost Malwa and Deccan in the process. He also suffered the invasion of Nadir Shah of Persia. Thus, being the last emperor to possess effective control over the Mughal empire.

Ahmad Shah Bahadur

mughal emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Ahmad Shah Bahadur

Birth – 23 December 1725

Reign – 26 April 1748 – 2 June 1754

Death – 1 January 1775 (aged 49)

The Marathas defeated Mughal forces in the Battle of Sikandarabad.

Alamgir II

mughal emperor Alamgir II of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Aziz-ud-din

Birth – 6 June 1699

Reign – 2 June 1754 – 29 November 1759 (5 years, 180 days)

Death – 29 November 1759 (aged 60)

During his reign came the domination of  VizierImad-ul-Mulk.

Shah Jahan III

Birth Name – Muhi-ul-millat

Birth – 1711

Reign – 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760

Death – 1772 (aged 60-61)

Here in his reign, Hyder Ali became the Sultan of Mysore in 1761 after the Consolidation of the Nizam of Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha, during the Battle of Buxar.

Shah Alam II

mughal emperor Ali Gauhar of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Ali Gauhar

Birth – 25 June 1728

Reign – 24 December 1759 – 19 November 1806 (46 years, 330 days)

Death – 19 November 1806 (aged 78)

In 1799, the execution of Tipu Sultan of Mysore happened during his reign..

Akbar Shah II

mughal emperor Akbar Shah II of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Mirza Akbar

Birth – 22 April 1760

Reign – 19 November 1806 – 28 September 1837

Death – 28 September 1837 (aged 77)

He became the titular figure under the British rule.

Bahadur Shah II

mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II of India The 20 Mughal Emperors of India – Full List With Photos!

Birth Name – Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar

Birth – 24 October 1775

Reign – 28 September 1837 – 14 September 1857 (19 years, 351 days)

Death – 7 November 1862 (aged 87)

He was the last Mughal Emperor who was deposed by the British and later exiled to Burma (now Myanmar) after the Indian Uprising of 1857.

By: Deepti Verma

Source and Reference:

The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973 by Majumdar R.C.

India: A History by Keay John.  ISBN 0-8021-3797-0

M.F. Ashley Montagu, Vol. 43, No.1 (Apr., 1952), pp. 75-76.

Ancient India: In Historical Outline by D.N. JhaISBN 81-7304-285-3.

Mughal Emperors Image Source: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, Featured Image

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