In 2016, WWF and the Global Tiger Forum announced that there were 3,890 tigers around the world that were still alive. This number has increased because in 2010 there were only 3,200 tigers in the wild. According to The New York Times, countries such as India and Nepal have succeeded in increasing the tiger population through conservation efforts and the addition of territories when conducting national surveys. There were 2,226 and 198 tigers living in India and Nepal. India Times reported that India began paying attention to tigers in 1973 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi launched the Project Tiger program. At that time, there were only 268 tigers in the country. The rise of hunting, conflict with humans, and trophy hunting or hunting activities for recreation make fewer tiger populations. One of Project Tiger’s agenda is to ensure that tiger habitat in the form of a nature reserve remains. In 1973 to 1974, a total of five nature reserves were determined by the government.
However, over time the number increased to 50 nature reserves. The government views the need to expand tiger habitat because these animals have extensive cruising. In addition, this step was taken to reduce conflict with humans which is one of the main causes of reduced tiger population. Not only that, the Indian government also tightened the security of nature reserves from hunting activities. Living tigers are also marked by a tracking collar so that animal activity can be monitored. Nature reserves that become tiger habitat must be free from livestock and human populations. Relocation of residents from the core nature reserve area was carried out and this activity became the most important program of Project Tiger which is now handled by The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). With this step, the tiger prey in the nature reserve is no longer reduced due to human activities so that the large cat population is increasing.
As with India, Nepal has long paid more attention to the conservation of tigers and wild animals. NTCA said that efforts to save the animals began when the National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act was created in 1950. Prabin Poudel in The Diplomat said more than 23 percent of the total area in Nepal was designated as a protected area. There are 12 national parks, one nature reserve, one hunting area, and six conservation areas. Each national park in this case has a buffer zone or buffer zone that serves to protect the core conservation area from human negative actions.