India Needs Fighter Aircraft, Not Just Factories

India Needs Fighter Aircraft, Not Just Factories

India Needs Fighter Aircraft, Not Just Factories – The visitors present at Aero India this year are feeling deja vu. Back at the previous celebration, the show’s soundtrack hummed fighter planes over offers that wanted to put fighter aircraft through the steps they took. The sound this time is also the same, with the number of participants repeatedly appearing in the air including the Dassault Rafale, Lockheed Martin F-16 and Saab Gripen all on display in the sky. As an addition to intimate chat from salespeople who promise combat capabilities and most importantly, industrial partnerships.

Rafale finally won, but after years of tortuous negotiations, New Delhi finally abandoned the MMRCA program altogether because of the failure to reach a technology transfer agreement. In contrast, 36 units of Rafale fighter jets ordered were still in uncontrolled conditions. Meanwhile, the obsolete fleet of the MiG era that was supposed to replace by the MMRCA is now decaying, eroding the ability of the Indian Air Force. Another fighter intended to be a replacement for some of the old assets made by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Tejas, has been a bad player for years. This aircraft is very slow to enter service after decades of development. This development project also support by . The measured against the low level of own ownership, Tejas has indeed made progress, however, with outdated international standards.

India Needs Fighter Aircraft, Not Just Factories

This year’s exhibition saw the MMRCA veteran fighter jet fighting on several conditions, which were unclear orders for 100 single-engine fighter jet units, plus Navy information requests for 57 aircraft carrier jet units. Expect two things from agreement. First, the abbreviation for the strange MMRCA will apply to both types of fighter jets. Second is industrial participation and technology transfer, the needs of producers are very high. The distribution of construction work to the local is not all bad, and high-ability aerospace work will delight global politicians. That said, New Delhi places too much emphasis on the value of the industry in buying fighter planes, rather than aiming for the military in their acquisition. Strategic capabilities could not obtain only for mere economic benefits. If the acquisition of a new Indian fighter jet fails the same as the MMRCA program, then the Indian air force will continue to stare at its aging fleet.

5 Tempat Wisata di India yang Menarik Untuk di Kunjungi
Wisata

5 Tempat Wisata di India yang Menarik Untuk di Kunjungi

5 Tempat Wisata di India yang Menarik Untuk di Kunjungi – Dari segi wilayah, India adalah negara terbesar ketujuh di dunia dan negara terpadat kedua di dunia. India menawarkan warisan yang kaya dari budaya dan agama yang ditinggalkan selama ratusan tahun.

5 Tempat Wisata di India yang Menarik Untuk di Kunjungi

Sumber : wisatamuda.com
indiaopines – Tujuan utama wisatawan termasuk kesempatan untuk mengalami berbagai situs sakral dan kehidupan spiritual. Bagi pecinta alam, hal lain adalah menikmati matahari di pantai, taman nasional yang rimbun, dan cagar alam. Dari Taj Mahal yang megah di Agra hingga situs suci Harmandir Sahib (sebelumnya Kuil Emas) di Amritsar dan Masjid Mekkah Masjid di Hyderabad, pengunjung akan menemukan serangkaian harta spiritual, budaya dan sejarah. Karena itu, jika India adalah negara paling populer dan populer untuk berwisata, tidak ada salahnya. Dirangkum dari liawisata.com, Berikut Tempat wisata terbaik di India yang wajib dikunjungi.

1. Taj Mahal, Agra

Sumber : youtube.com
Tentunya saat berwisata ke India, Anda tidak boleh melewatkan kesempatan untuk mampir di Taj Mahal, salah satu bangunan paling terkenal di India. Bangunan itu adalah salah satu tempat wisata paling populer di India, dan bahkan tujuh hingga delapan juta orang mengunjunginya setiap tahun. Tak lupa, beberapa waktu lalu Raisa-Hamish pasangan asal Indonesia menyambangi Taj Mahal. Mereka menyempatkan diri untuk berfoto dan berjalan-jalan di sekitar Taj Mahal. Taj Mahal sendiri merupakan kompleks dengan taman seluas kurang lebih 22,4 hektar. Di sana Anda akan menemukan air mancur, mausoleum, dan kolam renang kecil yang indah. Bangunan ini juga bisa dikatakan sebagai bukti cinta Raja Shah Jahan yang terkenal kepada istrinya Mumtaz Mahal, tempat tinggal atau makam istrinya. Butuh waktu sekitar 22 tahun untuk menyelesaikan gedung mewah ini. Setelah selesai, sekitar tahun 1983, Taj Mahal terdaftar sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Selain itu, gedung ini memenangkan kejuaraan proyek “Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Baru” tahun 2007. Taj Mahal tidak hanya berisi sejarah simbol cinta, tetapi juga menggabungkan bentuk tradisional seni Persia dan seni Mughal awal. Inspirasi khusus datang dari Dinasti Timurid. Keindahan bisa dilihat pada atap, kubah, dan menaranya yang terbuat dari marmer putih. Lalu ada sekitar 43 jenis permata. Ini termasuk permata, termasuk berlian, zamrud, kristal, topas dan dupa tempel, yang digunakan untuk membuat bangunan lebih mengesankan. Perlu diketahui bahwa di dalam bangunan tersebut tidak hanya makam Mumtaz Mahal, tapi juga makam Syah Jahan di sebelahnya. Pada 2017, sekitar Agustus, pengadilan India mengonfirmasi bahwa Taj Mahal adalah makam atau mausoleum Muslim dan bukan kuil Hindu. Sedangkan untuk menuju ke sana, wisatawan harus membayar 1.000 rupee atau setara dengan 200.000 rupee untuk wisatawan asing, dan 40 rupee atau setara dengan 8.500 rupee untuk wisatawan lokal India. Namun, baru-baru ini, Biro Survei Arkeologi India, badan yang bertanggung jawab mengawasi pengoperasian Taj Mahal, mengumumkan bahwa hanya 40.000 turis lokal India yang diizinkan mengunjungi kompleks Taj Mahal setiap hari. Yakinlah bahwa peraturan ini tidak berlaku untuk turis asing. Pembatasan diberlakukan bagi wisatawan lokal karena terlihat begitu sibuk dan mengkhawatirkan kondisi gedung Taj Mahal. Menurut data tim peneliti, marmer bangunan Taj Mahal ternyata pernah retak pada tahun 2010 lalu. Fondasi kayu Taj Mahal juga tampak usang. Tak hanya itu, akibat pengaruh polusi udara dan hujan asam, warna marmer Taj Mahal berangsur-angsur menguning.
Baca juga : Danau Tengkorak di India Yang Menjadi Misteri

2. Golden City, Jaisalmer

Sumber : nativeplanet.com
India Sejauh ini, perjalanan ke India menjadi topik saya. Belum selesai, karena saya belum ketemu pasangan travel dan tamasya yang cocok. Hingga tahun 2018, seorang kenalan bertemu saat melakukan perjalanan ke Nepal. Anggia bertanya dan mengatakan bahwa ia telah memperoleh informasi biro perjalanan, yang sangat membantu selama berwisata di India. Saat itu, satu-satunya kesan saya adalah pergi ke Agra (Taj Mahal) di New Delhi – ini adalah tujuan utama saya ke India dan Jaipur, dan itulah alasan mengapa saya pergi ke Jaipur. Ketika dikatakan perjalanannya 11 hari, saya hanya … Jadi di akhir perjalanan ini, kami berhenti di kota Jaisalmer. Kota dengan populasi paling sedikit dibandingkan kota-kota lain yang pernah kami kunjungi di India. Sasaran utama Jaisalmer memang wisata unta, yang naik di gurun pasir yang berbatasan dengan wilayah Pakistan. Pertama kali terpikir, mengapa Anda pergi jauh-jauh ke ujung India hanya dengan menunggang unta? Hahaha … Tapi ternyata kota ini memberikan pengalaman yang berbeda untukku. Jika Anda ingin melihat sapi Golerland di jalan, atau saat Anda berjalan di tengah malam, Anda dapat melihat kawanan sapi … Ya, ini dia. Ada bullpen di depan hotel tempat kami menginap. Kota Jaisalmer disebut sebagai “Kota Emas” karena bangunan ini terbuat dari batu pasir berwarna kuning dan tampak “berpendar” saat terkena sinar matahari. Ada sebuah benteng bernama Benteng Jaisalmer yang dibangun pada abad ke-11. Karena bercahaya jika terkena sinar matahari, benteng ini disebut juga Sonar Quila atau Benteng Emas. Pada tahun 2013, Benteng Jaisalmer dan 5 benteng lainnya di Rajasthan ditetapkan sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO dan disebut “Benteng Bukit Rajasthan”. Uniknya, kawasan benteng ini menjadi rumah bagi seperempat penduduk kota, bahkan terdapat hotel di kawasan benteng tersebut. Bagi saya, hal yang benar-benar tak terlupakan tentang kota ini adalah matahari terbenam. Di akhir Safari Unta, kami diajak menikmati sunset yang sangat indah, lalu akhirnya berangkat ke camp konsentrasi gurun pasir untuk makan malam, sambil menikmati atraksi tari dan musik tradisional di dekat api unggun. Pada akhirnya, setelah lebih dari sepuluh jam berkendara melalui darat dari Jaipur, kunjungan ke kota Jaisalmer ini menjadi perjalanan yang tak terlupakan.

3. Pantai dari Goa

Sumber : idntimes.com
India tidak hanya memiliki Bollywood atau kari, tapi juga pantainya yang indah. Di Kota Goa, wisatawan bisa menemukan pantai cantik ala India. Sebagai bekas jajahan Portugis, Goa di India selatan memiliki garis pantai sepanjang 103 kilometer. Oleh karena itu, wisata pantai menjadi pilihan yang ideal bagi wisatawan ke Goa selama liburannya. Layaknya pantai, wisatawan juga bisa berjemur dan berpesta di pantai Goa. Pantai Mandrem Pantai Mandrem terletak di utara Goa dan merupakan salah satu pantai terindah di Asia. Suasana di pantai ini juga sering kali tenang dan asri. Jadikan itu salah satu tujuan bulan madu di India. Selain pantai, wisatawan juga bisa menemukan desa kecil yang tenang. Wisatawan juga bisa menghabiskan waktunya dengan berenang atau bersantai di pinggir pantai. Anda juga dapat menikmati hidangan lokal yang disediakan oleh penduduk desa. Kelebihan dan kekurangan dari Pantai Mandrem adalah suasananya yang tenang dan tentram. Bisa dibilang Pantai Mandrem hanya damai. Pantai Agonda Layaknya Pantai Mandrem, Pantai Agonda juga masuk dalam daftar pantai terindah di Asia. Selain menjaga ketenangan, Pantai Agonda juga terkenal dengan kebersihannya. Cocok untuk orang yang ingin pergi yoga atau berjemur sambil membaca. Dari segi suasananya, Agonda juga lebih sepi dari pantai sibuk lainnya di Goa. Pertahankan privasi otomatis dan pertahankan suasana tenang. wisatawan juga bisa naik perahu sewaan dan berburu lumba-lumba di Pantai Agonda. Lumba-lumba sering mengunjungi pantai ini. Pantai Baga Dibandingkan dengan pantai lain di Goa, Pantai Baga bisa dikatakan pantai paling populer. Jika diletakkan berdampingan, maka Pantai Baga bisa dibandingkan dengan Gili Trawangan di Lombok. Pesta kehidupan malam yang meriah di Pantai Baga. Saat musim turis, deretan karpet ular bisa dilihat di sekitar Pantai Baga. Penumpang juga dapat menikmati berbagai fasilitas olahraga air yang tentunya dapat diterima. Sebut saja selancar angin dan lain-lain. Pantai Baga sendiri merupakan tempat penyelenggaraan Kejuaraan Selancar Angin Nasional tahunan. Di Pantai Baga, wisatawan juga bisa menaiki perahu sewaan untuk berburu lumba-lumba. Ada banyak hal yang dapat dilakukan di Pantai Baga, terutama saat Anda menghadiri pesta dan kehidupan malam. Pantai Candolim Pantai Candolim terletak tidak jauh dari Baga dan merupakan salah satu pantai terindah di India. Sayangnya, nama Pantai Candolim masih belum sepopuler yang lain. Di satu sisi, Pantai Candolim lebih sepi dari pantai lainnya. Misalnya saat liburan, Pantai Candolim tetap sepi dan menarik. Cocok untuk traveller yang suka ketenangan. Pantai Cavelossim Untuk urusan pantai Goa dengan pemandangan pedesaan yang asri, Pantai Cavelossim yang berada di muara Sungai Sal boleh jadi pemenangnya. Wisatawan bisa menikmati laut dan persawahan di pantai ini, serta deretan pohon kelapa. Selain itu, Pantai Cavelossim memiliki pantai berpasir putih yang semakin mempercantik pemandangan. Dibandingkan dengan Pantai Baga yang terkenal dengan kehidupan malamnya, pantai ini tidak terlalu ramai. Oleh karena itu, jika Anda sedang berlibur di India dan ingin mencari pantai, maka Kota Goa akan menjadi pilihan yang tepat. Saat bermain air dan berjemur, traveller akan dimanjakan dengan eksotisme pantai India.

4. Taman Nasional Periyar and Wildlife Sanctuary, Madurai

Sumber : saakshirajat.com
Objek wisata paling populer di India Selatan, Taman Nasional dan Suaka Margasatwa Periyar, berpusat di sebuah danau yang dibangun oleh para insinyur Inggris pada tahun 1895 untuk irigasi dan suplai air untuk Kota Madurai. Taman ini didirikan pada tahun 1934 dan merupakan tempat yang indah bagi mamalia, termasuk gajah India, babi hutan, berang-berang, monyet ekor singa, dan lebih dari 20 harimau Bengal. Mengamati burung adalah aktivitas populer untuk melihat binatang. Pastikan untuk berhenti untuk jalan-jalan di salah satu dari banyak perkebunan rempah-rempah, teh atau kopi di dekatnya.
Baca juga : Wisata Gunung Es Dieng

5. Agra Fort

Sumber : agra.nic.in
India adalah negara dengan warisan budaya yang kaya. Salah satu tempat yang penuh dengan kejayaan sejarah adalah kota Agra. Agra adalah kota yang terletak di Uttar Pradesh, sekitar 200 kilometer dari New Delhi, ibu kota India. Terletak di tepi Sungai Yamuna, kota ini adalah kota kuno yang merupakan ibu kota Kerajaan Mughal dari tahun 1526 hingga 1658. Karenanya, tak heran jika Agra memiliki beragam Situs Warisan Dunia. Perjalanan 23 jam dari Hyderabad ke Agra bukanlah tugas yang mudah. Setelah sampai di stasiun Agra Kante, kami langsung turun dari kereta dan turun dari stasiun. Petualangan dimulai di Taj Mahal. Memang benar Taj Mahal merupakan destinasi yang wajib dikunjungi, namun jika tidak mampir ke monumen bersejarah ini dan datang jauh-jauh ke Agra, sayang sekali. Benteng Agra adalah salah satu benteng paling eksotis dan terbesar hanya beberapa kilometer dari Taj Mahal. Konon benteng ini sangat mirip dengan Benteng Merah. Memang setelah ke Benteng Merah kadang saya pikir saya salah, itu Benteng Merah dan ini Benteng Agra. Tapi saya harus mengatakan bahwa di antara dua benteng ini, Benteng Agra adalah benteng yang harus dikunjungi secara paksa. Benteng Agra (Benteng Agra) bukan hanya sebuah benteng, seperti tembok pelindung untuk berperang, bisa dikatakan Benteng Agra (Benteng Agra) adalah sebuah kompleks kerajaan yang memiliki banyak bangunan multi fungsi dan taman yang indah. Semuanya masih bisa dinikmati dengan sangat indah dan indah. Sore itu, setelah fokus di Taj Mahal selama lima jam, akhirnya kami memutuskan untuk mengambil tindakan. Sama seperti Taj Mahal, Benteng Agra tidak memperbolehkan Anda untuk membawa ransel besar, jadi kami memutuskan untuk menyimpan ransel di gudang dekat Taj Mahal. Kami putuskan jalan kaki karena menurut kami jaraknya sangat dekat, sekitar 2-3 kilometer. Pagi itu udara di Agra sangat dingin, namun pada siang hari panas kembali menerpa. Berjalan di udara panas dan kering bukanlah kombinasi yang tepat. Tidak sulit mencapai Benteng Agra dari Taj Mahal dengan berjalan kaki. Ikuti saja instruksinya. Dalam waktu sekitar 15-20 menit, saya sampai di Benteng Agra. Jika Anda memutuskan untuk menggunakan becak otomatis, biayanya bisa mencapai 30 hingga 50 rupee. Kami membeli tiket masuk seharga 250 rupee, yang sudah diskon 50 rupee karena kami menunjukkan tiket Taj Mahal yang dibeli. Jika Anda ingin mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang sejarah dan cerita, cukup sewa panduan audio berbahasa Inggris dan dapatkan 100 rupee. Sayangnya, saat itu kami lebih suka melihat-lihat foto, jadi kami tidak menyewa audio guide. Seperti yang saya katakan di awal. Dari kejauhan Benteng Agra terlihat megah. Saat kami mendekat, kami disambut oleh tembok kota besar. Sebuah kastil dikelilingi oleh sungai dan melintasi jembatan. Ya itu! Ini seperti kastil di Inggris. Setelah membeli tiket, kami pun langsung tertarik untuk memasuki Agra Fort Complex. Sebelum memasuki gedung, kami disambut oleh pintu bagian dalam dengan dinding besar yang tinggi. Jika saya tidak salah ingat, pintu ini disebut Pintu Gajah. Hmm .. Makanya disebut Gerbang Gajah yang masuk akal. Arsitektur disini sangat mirip dan sangat menarik untuk dijadikan objek foto. Suasana saat itu tidak terlalu ramai, mungkin karena cuaca sangat panas. Sebelum melanjutkan perjalanan, saya memutuskan untuk memasuki Istana Jahangir. Istana ini memang menjadi perhentian pertama bagi sebagian besar wisatawan. Dari kejauhan, bangunan asri dengan taman yang rimbun di depannya itu seakan menjadi panggilan setiap pengunjung. Ternyata dari dalam Istana Jahangir kita bisa melihat Taj Mahal dari kejauhan. Jika dilihat dari dekat, bangunan ikonik ini terlihat berbeda. Dari luar, Istana Jahangir memang tidak terlihat besar, namun saat masuk, kami seolah sudah memasuki labirin. Ada banyak ruangan dan aula ini! Ini adalah taman indah lainnya di Benteng Agra. Saya tidak tahu bangunan apa ini. Hehe, saya juga lupa cara masuk ke bagian ini. Labirin yang benar-benar menyesatkan setiap pengunjung. Salah satu aula yang membuat saya terkesan. Lihatlah detail internal dan eksternal! Semuanya rapi dan indah. Secara keseluruhan, walaupun harus merogoh kocek 250 rupiah atau sekitar 60.000 rupiah, saya tetap sangat puas dengan keindahan Benteng Agra. Bagaimanapun juga, ketika memasuki objek seperti itu, saran saya adalah memaksimalkan hasil foto dan jangan lupa menyewa audio guide, karena dengan cara ini kita bisa lebih memahami ceritanya.
Danau Tengkorak di India Yang Menjadi Misteri
Informasi

Danau Tengkorak di India Yang Menjadi Misteri

Danau Tengkorak di India Yang Menjadi Misteri – Di kedalaman Himalaya India, sebuah danau terpencil terletak di lembah yang tertutup salju yang dipenuhi ratusan kerangka manusia.

Danau Tengkorak di India Yang Menjadi Misteri

Sumber : guideku.com

indiaopines – Danau Roopkund terletak di ketinggian 5.029 meter di lereng curam Trisul, salah satu gunung tertinggi di India di Uttarakhand.

Di lansir dari laman detik.com, Mayat-mayat ini tersebar di sekitar dan di bawah es “Danau Tengkorak”. Tengkorak-tengkorak tersebut ditemukan oleh patroli Inggris pada tahun 1942. Para antropolog dan ilmuwan telah mempelajarinya selama lebih dari setengah abad.

Danau Rupkund telah menarik para ilmuwan dan turis yang penasaran selama bertahun-tahun. Saat musim dan cuaca berubah, air danau yang membeku mengembang dan menyusut hampir sepanjang tahun. Hanya ketika salju mencair barulah tulang muncul, dan terkadang dagingnya masih menempel dan terawat dengan baik.

Sejauh ini, sisa-sisa kerangka sekitar 600-800 orang telah ditemukan di sini. Dalam hal memperkenalkan pariwisata, penguasa wilayah mendeskripsikan tempat ini sebagai telaga misterius.

Selama lebih dari separuh era , antropolog dan ilmuwan telah mempelajari mayat dan diganggu oleh banyak masalah.

Sebuah teori lama mengaitkan mayat tersebut dengan Raja India, istri dan pelayannya, yang semuanya tewas dalam badai salju sekitar 870 tahun yang lalu. Sisa 600 hingga 800 orang ditemukan di tempat kejadian.

Teori lain adalah bahwa beberapa mayat adalah tentara India yang mencoba menginvasi Tibet pada tahun 1841 dan dipaksa mundur. Kemudian, lebih dari 70 dari mereka berhasil kembali ke Himalaya dan meninggal dalam perjalanan.

Ada teori lain bahwa ini mungkin “kuburan” yang dikubur oleh korban wabah. Di desa- desa di area itu, terdapat lagu wilayah terkenal yang menggambarkan gimana Bidadari Nanda Devi menghasilkan hujan es yang sekeras besi serta menewaskan orang di dekat telaga. Gunung paling tinggi kedua di India, Nanda Devi dikira sebagai bidadari.

Penelitian sebelumnya tentang tulang menemukan bahwa banyak kematian “di atas rata-rata”. Kebanyakan dari mereka adalah orang dewasa paruh baya berusia antara 35 dan 40 tahun. Tidak ada bayi atau anak-anak. Beberapa diantaranya adalah wanita lanjut usia. Semuanya dalam keadaan sehat.

Apalagi, biasanya diasumsikan bahwa kerangka tersebut adalah sekelompok orang yang tewas sekaligus dalam peristiwa bencana abad ke-9.

Studi terbaru berlangsung selama lima tahun dan melibatkan 28 peneliti dari 16 institusi di India, Amerika Serikat dan Jerman, dan menemukan bahwa semua asumsi ini mungkin salah.

Para ilmuwan melakukan analisis genetik dan penanggalan 38 mayat termasuk 15 wanita di danau, beberapa di antaranya berasal dari tahun 1200.

Hingga salju mencair, tulang manusia bisa terlihat jelas di danau. (Getty Images)

Mereka menemukan bahwa orang yang meninggal beragam secara genetik, dan kematian mereka terpisah selama 1.000 tahun.

Peneliti utama studi tersebut, Eadaoin Harney, seorang mahasiswa PhD di Universitas Harvard, mengatakan: “Ini membantah penjelasan apa pun yang melibatkan satu peristiwa bencana yang menyebabkan kematian.”

“Belum jelas apa yang terjadi dengan Danau Ropkend, tetapi sekarang kami dapat mengetahui dengan tentu kalau kematian banyak orang ini tidak bisa dipaparkan dengan satu insiden .”

Sumber : ibnuhasyim.com

Tetapi yang lebih menarik, riset genetika mendapatkan kalau orang yang mati di telaga itu beraneka ragam: satu golongan mempunyai gen yang mirip dengan orang yang tinggal di Asia Selatan saat ini, sedangkan golongan lain berkeluarga dekat  dengan orang Eropa saat ini. , Terutama mereka yang tinggal di pulau Kreta Yunani.

Selain itu, orang-orang dari Asia Selatan “tampaknya bukan dari populasi yang sama”.

Hani berkata: “Beberapa dari mereka memiliki kesamaan darah dengan orang-orang di anak benua utara, sementara yang lain memiliki kesamaan darah dengan orang-orang di selatan.”

Jadi, apakah kelompok orang yang berbeda ini tiba di Danau Roopkund dalam kelompok yang lebih kecil selama ratusan tahun? Apakah beberapa dari mereka meninggal dalam satu kejadian?

Tidak ada senjata atau barang dagangan yang ditemui di posisi  Danau Ropkund bukan pada rute perdagangan. Riset genetik tidak menciptakan fakta bahwa bakteri patogen purba yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit adalah penyebab kematian.

Promosi perjalanan menggambarkan Roopkund sebagai “danau misterius”. (Getty Images)

Ziarah melintasi danau dapat menjelaskan mengapa orang melakukan perjalanan di daerah tersebut. Penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa catatan ziarah di daerah tersebut tidak muncul sampai akhir abad ke-19, tetapi prasasti dari candi-candi setempat berasal dari abad ke-8 dan ke-10, “menunjukkan asal mula”.

Oleh karena itu, para ilmuwan yakin bahwa beberapa mayat yang ditemukan di lokasi ini disebabkan oleh “kematian besar-besaran selama haji”.

Sejauh ini belum ada yang tahu pasti siapa yang berada di balik tumpukan kerangka manusia di Danau Rupponde.

Karena ciri khas deretan tengkorak ini tidak bisa dipecahkan, danau di pegunungan Himalaya India ini dijuluki danau misterius.

Peneliti menduga tumpukan tulang di Danau Roopkund adalah korban dari berbagai bencana alam.

Dipercaya bahwa 38 tulang yang telah diuji DNA ini milik kelompok berbeda yang telah mengunjungi Danau Roopkund selama lebih dari seribu tahun.

Melalui penelitian lebih lanjut, para peneliti membagi 38 tulang yang ditemukan di Danau Rupukonde menjadi tiga kategori. Masing-masing memiliki 23 kerangka, di antaranya adalah orang India, dan 14 lainnya adalah Kreta dan Yunani. Sedangkan frame berasal dari Asia Tenggara.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Danau Rupucomde merupakan tujuan wisata yang populer dikunjungi banyak orang dari berbagai belahan dunia.

Selain itu, “India Today” melaporkan bahwa studi tahun 2013 menyimpulkan bahwa sejarah tumpukan tulang ini dapat ditelusuri kembali ke abad ke-9.

Diyakini bahwa mereka tewas dalam badai karena mereka menemukan pukulan hebat di kepala. Di saat yang sama, tidak ada tanda-tanda cedera akibat senjata atau bencana alam lainnya.

Himalaya adalah gunung tertinggi di dunia. Himalaya tidak hanya berdiri tegak, tetapi juga terjepit di antara jurang kecil dan danau es yang mengerikan. Danau tersebut biasa dikenal dengan sebutan “Danau Tengkorak”.

Ketika es mencair (biasanya dalam satu bulan dalam setahun), kerangka manusia yang sangat besar dapat dilihat dari danau es yang mencair (kedalaman sekitar 2 meter).

Pengumpulan tulang, daging, dan rambut melalui proses pengawetan alami dalam iklim kering dan dingin, dan melalui proses yang panjang.

Karena banyaknya tengkorak, danau ini juga disebut kuburan massal. Banyak orang yang percaya bahwa mereka adalah korban longsoran salju atau sisa-sisa tentara Jepang yang masuk ke India.

Pada tahun 2004, para ilmuwan membuat terobosan dalam memecahkan teka-teki ini. Seorang reporter dari National Geographic mengumpulkan 30 sampel tulang dan membawanya ke Pusat Biologi Sel dan Molekuler di Hyderabad untuk pengujian DNA.

Sampel kemudian dikirim ke akselerator radiokarbon di Universitas Oxford. Berdasarkan hasil uji laboratorium tersebut, terbukti bahwa tulang telah ada sejak tahun 850 Masehi.

Setelah mempelajari tengkorak manusia di danau, mereka juga mempelajari benda-benda sisa peziarah India dan pemandu lokal melalui cincin, tombak, dan sepatu kulit yang ditemukan di danau.

Menurut hasil penelitian lebih lanjut, diketahui bahwa mereka tewas akibat benturan di bagian belakang kepala, seolah-olah tewas dalam badai yang dahsyat.

Berdasarkan situs pendakian Roopkund, para ilmuwan yakin bahwa es dan salju di danau tersebut masih bisa mengubur sebanyak 600 mayat.

Misteri lain masih ada di sekitar danau yang sepi ini. Dikatakan bahwa sisa-sisa tulang dan barang-barang pribadi menghilang dari tempat kejadian setiap tahun, dicuri oleh pendaki, tertiup angin, dan mungkin tertutup salju seiring waktu.

Dengan pengawasan dan pemeliharaan minimal, sejarah yang kaya ini dapat hilang seiring waktu, dan rahasia ratusan mayat akan disembunyikan selamanya.

Danau Roopkund di dataran tinggi Himalaya di India disebut Danau Tengkorak. Ada ratusan kerangka manusia yang berumur ribuan tahun. Hingga saat ini para peneliti di dunia masih berusaha mencari tahu apa penyebab kematian beberapa orang Asia Tenggara bahkan Yunani di tempat misterius ini.

Beberapa peneliti awalnya menduga bahwa kematian massal tersebut disebabkan oleh sambaran petir yang kuat, namun tidak ada bukti konkret untuk menjawab alasan tersebut.

Ahli genetika Harvard Medical School David Reich (David Reich) mengatakan: “ Kami menemukan bahwa sejarah Danau Ropkend jauh lebih rumit dari yang kami duga, ” Science Alert pada 2019 ini dikutip pada Rabu, 21 Agustus.

Serangkaian tes DNA dilakukan pada tulang tersebut sehingga peneliti dapat mempelajari lebih lanjut asal usul ratusan orang di Danau Roopkund.

Menurut data penelitian yang dipublikasikan di jurnal Nature Communications, analisis DNA membuktikan bahwa beberapa jenis manusia, termasuk manusia, sudah sering datang ke Danau Rupkund selama 1.000 tahun.

Melalui analisis biomolekuler, rekonstruksi isotop makanan dan penanggalan radiokarbon, analisis DNA dari 38 tulang manusia dilakukan. Kemudian hasil analisis dibandingkan dengan 1.521 DNA purba dan 7.985 DNA manusia modern dari seluruh dunia.

Hasil tes DNA menunjukkan bahwa tulang yang tersebar di Danau Roopkund terbagi menjadi tiga kelompok berbeda. Pertama, ada 23 orang dari India modern, diikuti oleh 14 orang dari zaman Yunani modern, dan yang terakhir dari Asia Tenggara.

Kelompok India tiba di tempat ini pada abad ke-7 dan ke-10, terbagi menjadi beberapa kelompok dengan kerentanan temporal yang berbeda, sedangkan kelompok Mediterania dan Asia Tenggara tiba di tempat ini pada abad ke-17 dan ke-20 melalui analisis uji radiokarbon.

Sumber : kompas.com

“Orang India memiliki kebiasaan makan yang berbeda. Mereka mengandalkan makanan yang berasal dari C3 dan C4, jadi penemuan genetik ini membuktikan bahwa mereka termasuk dalam populasi Asia Selatan. Di saat yang sama, individu dari Mediterania memiliki pola makan yang lebih kecil,” Max Planck Institute Ayushi Nayak menjelaskan.

Fakta bahwa orang Yunani muncul di Danau Roopkund mengejutkan para peneliti. Menurut Eadaoin Harney, ahli biologi Universitas Harvard, danau ini tidak hanya menjadi tujuan penduduk setempat, tetapi juga menarik perhatian penduduk dunia.

Meski disebut sebagai tempat misterius, peziarah Hindu modern tetap pergi ke tempat suci di India utara untuk menyembah dewa Nanda Devi melalui danau. Para peneliti menduga bahwa kematian di masa lalu mungkin disebabkan oleh perjalanan penjelajah yang ekstrem.

Namun, kehadiran tentara Mead di kawasan itu membuat bingung peneliti karena dianggap bukan jemaah haji India. “Tidak jelas apa yang menyebabkan orang-orang ini datang ke Danau Ropkunde dan penyebab kematian mereka.

Di India utara, tepat di utara Akanhan, ada lebih dari 200 tulang tersebar di tepi danau beku. Saya tidak tahu dari mana asalnya.

Tulang-tulang ini pertama kali ditemukan oleh penjaga hutan Inggris pada tahun 1942. Awalnya, tulang-tulang ini dianggap sisa-sisa tentara Jepang yang menginvasi India selama Perang Dunia II. Kecurigaannya salah.

Iklim sejuk di sekitar Danau Rupkund, di ketinggian 16.000 kaki atau 4.876 meter, menahan beberapa helai rambut, pakaian yang terbuat dari daging dan kulit. Juga sandal.

Para ilmuwan baru-baru ini percaya bahwa mereka telah mengungkap kerangka tersebut. Mereka bukanlah tentara Jepang yang meninggal dan membeku 71 tahun silam, melainkan masa yang jauh lebih lama, yakni 850 Masehi.

Para ahli juga menemukan bahwa mereka termasuk dalam dua kelompok utama. Satu kelompok terdiri dari orang-orang yang memiliki hubungan dekat dan dikatakan sebagai satu keluarga. Yang lainnya adalah penduduk lokal yang lebih pendek.

Mereka menyimpulkan bahwa kelompok sebagai satu keluarga adalah peziarah yang melintasi lembah dengan bantuan banyak pemandu lokal.

Mengapa mereka mati bersama? Banyak spekulasi yang beredar. Dari tanah longsor hingga bunuh diri massal. Namun hingga saat ini, para ilmuwan mungkin menemukan kebenaran yang sebenarnya: ditemukan di celah-celah tengkorak.

Sebuah ekspedisi yang dilakukan pada tahun 2004 menemukan bahwa tim tersebut tewas akibat bebatuan berbentuk bola seperti hujan es akibat badai yang tiba-tiba. Selain itu, ada bukti bahwa tengkorak dan bahu korban retak akibat benturan benda bulat dari atas.

Dengan asumsi bahwa tidak ada tempat berlindung di lembah pada saat itu, mereka tidak dapat melarikan diri.

Mayat mereka berserakan di sekitar danau yang membeku, dan butuh waktu 1.200 tahun untuk akhirnya bisa ditemukan di era perang yang menghancurkan dunia.

Sebuah penelitian yang diterbitkan dalam jurnal Nature Communications menemukan bahwa tulang di Skull Lake milik orang yang berbeda secara genetik.

Beberapa dari orang-orang ini meninggal di Skull Lake dua kali dalam seribu tahun.

Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sejarah situs lebih rumit dari yang diperkirakan orang.

DNA kuno yang diperoleh dari tumpukan tulang di Danau Rupkund menunjukkan bahwa mereka memiliki setidaknya tiga genom berbeda.

Setelah sekuensing genom 38 tulang secara menyeluruh, ditemukan bahwa ada 3 kelompok berbeda di tumpukan tengkorak Danau Ruppund.

Kelompok pertama mencakup 23 tulang, dan nenek moyang berhubungan dengan orang-orang di India saat ini.

Uniknya, 23 tulang ini bukan milik satu golongan, melainkan berasal dari berbagai golongan.

Anehnya, kelompok kedua terdiri dari 14 tulang, yang keturunannya paling dekat hubungannya dengan orang-orang yang tinggal di Mediterania timur (terutama sekarang Kreta dan Yunani).

Kelompok ketiga menunjukkan nenek moyang yang terkait dengan orang Asia Tenggara saat ini.

“Setelah mengurutkan DNA mitokondria dari 72 kerangka, kami awalnya menyadari bahwa ada beberapa populasi berbeda di Roopkund. Meskipun banyak kerangka memiliki haploid mitokondria yang khas dari populasi India saat ini, kami juga menemukan sejumlah besar haploid mitokondria. Kerangka ploidi , kata Kumarasamy Thangaraj dari Pusat Biologi Sel dan Molekuler (CCMB) di Hyderabad.

Edaoin Harney dari Harvard University percaya bahwa kedatangan orang-orang yang berhubungan dengan kawasan Mediterania timur menunjukkan bahwa Skull Lake tidak hanya menjadi tempat yang menarik minat masyarakat setempat, tetapi juga wisatawan dari seluruh dunia.

Rekonstruksi pola makan isotop tengkorak yang stabil di Danau Rupkund memberikan dukungan untuk bukti ini.

Ayushi Nayak dari Institut Max Planck untuk Sejarah Manusia di Jerman memberi tahu kami bahwa orang keturunan India memiliki pola makan yang sangat berbeda.

Penemuan ini sesuai dengan bukti genetik bahwa mereka termasuk dalam berbagai kelompok sosial ekonomi di Asia Selatan.

Sebaliknya, tengkorak yang terkait dengan keturunan Mediterania Timur tampaknya telah memakan makanan yang jarang mengandung millet.

India, Exotic Destinations on the Asian Continent
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India, Exotic Destinations on the Asian Continent

India, Exotic Destoinations on the Asian Continent – India is one of the countries in South Asia. India currently has the largest human population in the world after China and is followed by the United States and Indonesia. India has become a world-famous country from the world of film to the whole world mentioning the term Bolywood for films originating from India. The different storylines and actions that exist in Indian films are shown by India to the world. Then, what about the Indian country. Are you interested in visiting India. Apart from the Taj Mahal, there are still many tourist destinations that you can visit in India. Here we will discuss some of the exotic destinations in India for your consideration when you want to visit this country.

The first and must-visit tourist destination is Bhubaneswar. This tourist destination is an ancient city which has a very interesting historical value. It is highly recommended to choose this location as a resting place for a few days. If you have a travel guide book in this place, you will be invited to tour Lingaraj Mandir. This location is surrounded by temples and shrines that are small in size and were used for the Gods of the Three Universe or commonly known as Tribhuvaneswar. Even though it is open only to Hindus, public tourists can enjoy the scenery around through the existing platform. The kinds of temples that exist can also be interesting and Instagramable photo spots.

Next there is Kolkata which is a historical monument of Victoria. This destination is a large and magnificent building. Its beauty shows architectural works originating from England. Kolkata itself is indeed a heritage building of the British Empire when colonizing India. In addition, this building is also a symbol of religion where this building has a unique blend of structures derived from the form of a cathedral, mosque and palace. Many online travel site such as also recommended to visit the Botanical Gardens and Tagore buildings.

Kochi, is an exotic tourist destination in India that you must visit. Kochi is very unique because it is located in the coastal region of Kerala and is part of the acculturation zone. So, here you can feel various ethnicities here, from Chinese, Portuguese to English. You can feel a foreign aura here. The culture that exists here is very much and interesting to know. There are also museums, churches and others. So, where you will go after this pandemic gone?

Extreme culinary from India, Dare to Try
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Extreme culinary from India, Dare to Try

Extreme culinary from India, Dare to Try – Did you know that India is a country that has various kinds of culinary delights. The most famous is curry rice with typical spices from India. Curry rice is also famous for its appetizing taste for us to eat. However, India also has culinary extremes. It’s possible that extreme culinary delights in India can ruin your mood for eating. Let us see what are the extreme culinary delights in India.

The first dish is Doh Khileh. Doh Khileh is a typical Indian food that can be likened to food in general, namely salad. If usually a salad consists of vegetables, in contrast to Doh Khileh, this Indian salad consists of a salad mixed with pork. Then, where is the extreme value? Pork mix is probably acceptable for most people. However, what makes this food into the extreme culinary delights in India is the mixture of steamed pork brains on top. Can you imagine eating a salad that is piled with steamed pork brains?

Next, the extreme culinary in India is Eri Polu. In general, the smell of this food is very unique. Its uniqueness comes from its basic material which is not common in many countries. Eri Polu is made from a basic material which is a silkworm cocoon. From these silkworm cocoons, a unique aroma emerged and made Eri Polu distinctive. To add flavor to this food, Indians usually add Khorisa which are fermented bamboo shoots. Can you imagine?
There is also Chaprah which is an extreme food from India. Have you ever imagined what it feels like if an ant is made into food? In India, red ants are used as the basic ingredient for Chaprah. Not only are the ants eaten, the eggs are also eaten. Well, those who eat this food are the Chhatisgarh tribe who add chili powder to add a spicy taste.

Sa-um Bur, if we compare it to food in general, this food is unique from the cooking process. Sa-um Bur is a food made from fermented lard. To make this food, usually lard is stored in a clay bowl until it turns into lard and the process takes months.

Benefits of Blood Sausage is a sausage made from blood. Just like the extreme Korean cuisine known as Sundae, India has Blood Sausage Benefits. This food is a typical dish of the Khasi tribe in India. The basic ingredients are pork blood mixed with meat and internal organs. which one do you dare to eat?

Theories of Neorealism in Indian-Pakistani Conflict
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Theories of Neorealism in Indian-Pakistani Conflict

Theories of Neorealism in Indian-Pakistani Conflic – The neorealism theory basically emphasizes how the international system of anarchy turns out to be peaceful with the concept of balance of power, where previously in the theory of state realism was an actor who was selfish and wanted to rule himself but apparently in the theory of neorealism can also cooperate. The Kashmir conflict involving bordering countries, India and Pakistan has not reached an agreement until now, eventually encouraging new problems such as the arms race. Both India and Pakistan feel that one of them is a threat that can attack at any time. This perception caused the two countries never have a positive outlook on each other. This makes the issue of the arms race between the two countries not finished.

Balance of Power refers to a condition of strong countries to achieve a balance or equilibrium. Balance of power is a concept of Neorealism thinking. According to Mearsheimer quoted in the book “Balance of Power in World History” by Stuart J. Kaufman, Richard Little, and William C. Wohlforth, great powers will try to maintain their hegemony in the world. The efforts of this country to maintain their hegemony can finish by balancing the strength of their countries with each other. They compete with each other so as not to miss, so that later balance or equilibrium will emerge, but unfortunately, the concept of balance of power resulted in an arms race or an arms race. If interpreted as arms race is a continuous competitive effort (militarily) carried out by two or more countries, India and Pakistan has the capability to make weapons stronger.

The arms race that took place between India and Pakistan not only caused negative impacts for both countries, such as the emergence of a sense of distrust with each other so that the conflicts between the two countries could not be resolved, but also affected the South Asian region. In the field of security, this arms race will have an impact on the creation of negative peace and the emergence of tensions in the countries of the South Asian region because at any time this arms race could lead to heated relations between India and Pakistan and lead to war between the two countries. The dispute in several Asian countries has also worsened the economic and business sectors which can be seen as declining income figures reported by site. In addition, a sense of distrust between India and Pakistan also made the Kashmir conflict not find a solution because there were no good intentions between the two countries.

Thoughts on India-Chinese Military Fellowship
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Thoughts on India-Chinese Military Fellowship

Thoughts on India-Chinese Military Fellowship – After earlier China had an argument with India over the dispute over the Doklam plateau, the Himalayas, now India is strengthening its alliance with China marked by an agreement to expand military relations. Chinese Defense Minister Wei Fenghe, on a trip to India, told Indian Prime Minister Narendera Modi this week the friendship between the two countries returned to ancient times. The results of the meeting were decided to expand relations between their armed forces in terms of training, joint training and other professional interactions. These two countries grew into two new competing forces at the regional level, marked by the development of nuclear weapons, a developing economy, expanding military budgets and appearing to compete to have influence in regions in South Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and Africa.

American capitalists who are full of hypocrisy expose the truth that there is interference from Western colonialism policies over the future of India. At present India considered to be racing economically. India also wants to end its poverty. Behind capitalism, India opened this country to the destruction of the economy through capitalist and colonialist policies. Democracy guarantees the privatization of large sources of income and then burdens the entire population by retreating taxes to cover the shortfall. The Indian rulers wanted to promise more than before because they were fully committed to the current capitalist system and agreements with colonialist financial institutions.

The US wants to borrow Indian power to rival China’s political and military aggressiveness. At the same time, the US controls Pakistan to compete openly with India. The US borrowed the power of India and Pakistan to stem China’s political and military expansion, while using both countries to stem the potential of a new Islamic Khilafah, which could potentially stand in South Asia and Central Asia. Against Pakistan, the US continues to work to bury the Kashmir problem in order to facilitate the rise of India as the dominant power rivaling China and Russia. The US is working to form a peace agreement in Afghanistan with the support of Pakistan, to secure a permanent US military presence there, right on the doorstep of the world’s only Muslim nuclear-armed nation. Ironically, the Pakistani ruler announced his willingness to ally with the US and support his plans for India and Afghanistan.

Mahatma Gandhi, Father of Anti-Violence in India that Inspires the World
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Mahatma Gandhi, Father of Anti-Violence in India that Inspires the World

Mahatma Gandhi, Father of Anti-Violence in India that Inspires the World – Of all the drama and the struggle against colonialism in the 20th century, there is one very famous story and so influences similar struggles in various other places. The story of this great struggle is driven by a figure who is considered one of the most important people of the 20th century by Times magazine, 5x nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize winner, and his birthday today (October 2) is commemorated by the United Nations as the International Day of Non-Violence. The figure in question is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, or better known as Mahatma Gandhi, a Father of Indian Nations, the most important icon and symbol of the 20th century in the anti-violence movement throughout the world. The process of Gandhi’s struggle throughout his life even inspired other great figures to follow similar movements in various parts of the world, some of which were Nelson Mandela (Father of South African Nations), and Martin Luther King Jr. (American civil rights fighter).

Upon his return from Europe, Gandhi continued the internal struggle to eliminate discrimination in the lowest Hindu caste (dalit), which for thousands of years considered an unclean, homeless, and indigent group in Indian Hindu culture. On September 20, Gandhi resumed the “fast to death” oath as a form of insistence that Hindu officials could form an agreement to abolish the caste system. Gandhi’s stubborn attitude made the whole country and even the world shocked. Gandhi’s enormous influence made Hindu leaders start accepting dalit people whom they had previously considered unclean in their temples. Only because of the influence of Gandhi, the conservative culture of Hinduism for thousands of years in India underwent major reforms. Gandhi gave a new designation to the dalit, namely harijans means “Children of God”. Gandhi’s extraordinary work in influencing the Indian nation also affected the perspective of the liberation movement in other parts of the world. Through the principle of his life, Gandhi seemed to be giving a hard slap to the superiority of the United Kingdom government known as the most noble and civilized at that time that the humanitarian principle of nonviolent resistance was not something that could be underestimated.

However, Gandhi remained an ordinary human being who did not free from mistakes and controversies. In today’s modern world, there are some academics who consider that Gandhi’s actions to demand Indian freedom from Great Britain are less strategic because they are too fast, while India at that time was still very difficult to be controlled and independently economically and politically. The anti-violence principle that Gandhi believes often criticized as a naive act that throws away lives. Apart from that, it seems too difficult for us to judge which Gandhi’s policies are right, which are wrong. After all, Gandhi had served his role very well in an effort to liberate his people. From a shy young man, nervous when talking, he turned into a liberation activist who had succeeded in liberating his people by remaining firm in holding the principle of the road without violence until the end of his life. Such as the freedom of people to gamble and play online on  website at this time, and the point is that they do not interfere with others.

Tycoon Plays a Big Role in the Feast of Indian Democracy
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Tycoon Plays a Big Role in the Feast of Indian Democracy

Tycoon Plays a Big Role in the Feast of Indian Democracy – Indian tycoons play an important role in the democratic feast of the world’s largest population. Campaign funding to tacit support, has become a hot issue that continues to grow. The Prime Minister (PM) of India, Narendra Modi, received substantial funding support from investors. Observers view this as raising concerns about the integrity of the democratic process. On the other hand, the Congress Party leader, Rahul Gandhi, tried to take advantage of the fighter jet agreement that affirmed businessman Anil Ambani. Meanwhile, tycoons Vijay Mallya and Nirav Modi received support from the UK. Polls in India are increasingly expensive. Party candidates judged as sufficiently dependent on funding support from anonymous entrepreneurs. As a result, transparency is fairly minimal and thick with conflicts of interest. Analysts view the flow of traditional funds, for example from party membership, to continue to decline. As a result, the party increasingly relies on wealthy donors to fund the campaign. Data compiled by the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), the election watchdog, shows that in 2017-2018, companies and individuals contribute 12 times more to the BJP Party than the other six national parties, including the Congress Party.

The BJP Party has saving funds of 4.37 billion rupees, equivalent to US $ 63.3 million. Meanwhile, the Congress Party only saves funds of around 267 rupees. From there, reflected the relatively large disparity in funding in the elections. Indian business people seemed less enthusiastic about Modi’s nomination this time. Especially after the cancellation of high-value banknotes and the application of new tax policies that disrupt economic growth. However, they might still choose Narendra Modi, because they feared the victory of Gandhi’s coalition could stop the much-needed economic reforms.

Opposition accused the government of removing restrictions on company contributions two years ago. Then, introduce a funding scheme that given anonymously, through election bonds purchased from banks. There are some rumors that also mention the election fund came from the help of one of the local.

Last Friday, the Indian Supreme Court ordered a number of political parties to reveal the identity of donors. Exactly, after activists opposed the government bond system. Elections are increasingly expensive for various structural reasons. Population growth, increasing political competition, voter expectations persuaded in the form of cash, along with technological developments, making costs for media and digital outreach even greater. A number of tycoons are called not explicitly expressing support for political party candidates. They may be afraid of supporting the wrong horse.

Indian Recipe for Eradicating Corruption, Is It Impactful?
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Indian Recipe for Eradicating Corruption, Is It Impactful?

Indian Recipe for Eradicating Corruption, Is It Impactful? – India decides to withdraw currency denominations of 500 and 1000 rupees from circulation. This step was taken to cut corruption, attract the circulation of illegal money from the market, and stop the supply of logistics for terrorist groups. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi is currently racing against time. Modi’s commitment to eradicate corruption and eradicate tax evasion is increasingly being tested ahead of his two-year term of office. This further prompted Modi to announce a policy of drastically replacing 500 rupees with new money and withdrawing 1,000 rupees from circulation. Modi’s decision sparked mixed reactions from the public. Most politicians and entrepreneurs support Modi’s move, while the voices opposing him are not very influential. However, at the grassroots level, this policy immediately triggered extraordinary activity among Indian people.

The Indian government under Narendra Modi has so far put in place a tax amnesty program to attract money belonging to its citizens, both illegal and legal as well as at home or abroad, as the main target. However, the results obtained through this program are still not optimal. CNN noted that India had lost potential funds to reach 100 million US dollars due to tax evaders, including those who hid their money abroad. Indians who obey pay taxes are only 2 percent of the population. This happens because most Indians work in the informal sector which is almost untouched by taxes. By withdrawing 1,000 rupees, the Indian government wants to force all “gray” money that is still hidden, both domestically and abroad, to flow to the market and can be detected. Eradicating corruption is also one of the key reasons for this withdrawal. When Modi took office in 2014, the Transparency International version of India’s corruption index was ranked 85 out of 175 countries with a score of 38. A year later, India’s score remained at 38, even though the ranking rose to 76 from 175 countries. India also recognize as the most corruption country, money from the corruption cases they clean by political money laundry due many corruption case is cover by Modi government. Company also involve to help prevent this money laundry practice, by not allowing local people to play on their casino except foreign people, but they still easily escape the law by do bribe with India Goverment. That means eradicating corruption in India is still not optimal.

Withdrawal of money with a nominal 500 rupees has a reason that is not purely a financial consideration. Withdrawal of 500 rupees was made because the government sniffed out attempts to counterfeit money by “cross-border terrorist groups” to finance their terror activities. Apart from the high targets set by Modi, the government will face enormous challenges in terms of implementation. The majority of Indian residents still glorify the cash method in their various types of transactions. This makes the amount of cash circulating in the community very large. However, Modi seems to be going ahead. He was determined to carry out this policy, complete with various progressive rhetoric which he used in front of his people. The Indian people are now halfway to making their sacrifices. Modi’s next task was to immediately prove the influence of this policy on the Indian economy.

Can India Realize Its Ambition To Become A Global Power?
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Can India Realize Its Ambition To Become A Global Power?

As a country of 1.3 billion people and more than 800 million of them have voting rights in elections, India often bears the title of “the largest democracy in the world. At the age of 70 years, this country is proud of achievements in the economic sector that now occupies seventh and the fourth largest military force in the world, the achievements above are some of the targets of India which were successfully achieved by Narendra Modi’s government.

Pursuing ambition to Become a global power, the Modi government boosted the development of public infrastructure to transportation facilities and changed several regulations that were considered to hinder foreign investment. Now the Indian economy managed to overtake the position – G7 member countries – who were in eighth position. India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reached $ 2.08 billion, while Italy amounted to $ 1.8 billion. From the consumption sector, Modi’s economic reforms shifted China as a market for motorbikes and scooters in 2016. India in recent years has become the target market for world producers, ranging from motor vehicles to smart phones. Now India is the third largest market in the world after China and the United States. India’s position as one of the main markets is likely to continue in the future. The latest PricewaterhouseCoopers study predicts that in 2050 India will occupy the second position as the world’s largest market shifting the US to third place.

The concept of power in International Relations is traditionally defined as something that is relational: ability A influences behavior B to get the desired results. In the book Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power leading scientist Joseph Nye separates three dimensions of power: the influence of utilizing economic incentives, military use and the ability to co-opt others with a soft power approach. India clearly has three elements as capital to become a global power.

Indian Election, Modi’s Opportunity is Still Strong
Politics

Indian Election, Modi’s Opportunity is Still Strong

The Prime Minister (PM) of India, Narendra Modi probably has a big chance to win the 2019 general election. However, Narendra Modi faced with the challenge of the fragile prospects of the Indian economy, if he wins the election and runs the second period of his administration. Observers considered that the strong support for the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which carries Narendra Modi as Prime Minister (PM) of India, among others, driven by the success of Narendra Modi’s government in increasing investor confidence during his five years of leadership. Besides that, the handling of Narendra Modi who is firm about tensions with Pakistan considered to increase the chances of winning the BJP Party in the biggest general election in the world, which held in stages on 11 April-19 May 2019.

Investors also saw good reasons for the victory of the ruling party in the polls because the Indian stock market has been running well for the past five years. Since Modi’s inauguration in May 2014, India’s largest stock index, Nifty, has increased 28 percent against the US dollar (US), while the MSCI Emerging Markets index has lost around 1%. However, there are some challenges that could threaten the second period for Modi, one of the most serious is the pressure of funds that have been trailing short-term money markets since September 2018, due to defaults from extensive infrastructure and IL & FS financial groups.

Tension has focused on non-bank financial companies or NBFC, which relies heavily on wholesale funding and has been an important driver of India’s credit growth in recent years. In months of crisis, retail investors remain suspicious of fixed-income mutual funds that play a key role in the debt market. That has pushed borrowing costs for middle creditors, namely the deployment of Triple A and Single A debt letters has increased by more than 140 basis points since September 2018, to almost 3.8 percentage points.

Reasons Why You Need to Study in India
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Reasons Why You Need to Study in India

It is interesting to learn and know the world of higher education in India. Before Indian Independence in 1937, one of the universities in India offered Albert Einstein to become a chancellor with high fees. He did not accept the offer because he preferred to teach at Princeton University in America. There are number of things we need to know about India. Chess games come from here. This country is the center of information technology development in Asia, second in the world after America. The center is in Bangelore, which is nicknamed the Silicon Valley of India and in Hyderabad, which is also nicknamed “Cyberabad.” India has the oldest tertiary institution in the world, namely Takshila which was founded in 700 BC. India has the world’s best business schools affiliated with some of the world’s best business schools. Many reliable IT business people are born here.

About one million Indians are billionaires. The companies that invest in India, export their products to all corners of the world. In the field of medicine, India was the first to document the plastic surgery process. IITB Mumbai which is the number one university in India, has so many alumni who work in world-leading companies such as Apple, Google, NASA, Microsoft, and several other multi-national companies. This university explored by Syiah Kuala University, Almuslim University, and Malikussaleh University to cooperate in student exchange programs. Because of prioritizing science and technology, the low caste group living in the countryside freed of tuition by the Government of India. They got free facilities to stay in a student hostel with free breakfast, lunch and dinner. Imagine, their number can reach ten millions of people.

Reasons Why You Need to Study in India

Therefore, we do not need to be surprised when meeting Indian educated people who have more than one bachelor’s degree. This is due to the impact of the attention and full support of the Government of India in providing free facilities or low tuition fees with relatively short study time from school to college. We do not need to hesitate to determine the choice of study in a country that has long and mature engaged in science and technology education. In India, we can study at a university whose quality is comparable to campuses in America, Europe, Japan, South Korea, or Australia. Besides the relatively cheap tuition fees, there we can learn anthropologically in diversity and simplicity. From a simple and pluralistic environment but capable of giving birth to world-class and modest humans.

Many Deaths in India Caused by Love
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Many Deaths in India Caused by Love

Victims of terror attacks reported more and more in recent years, but the biggest contributor to death in India comes from love and things related to broken heart. In the period 2001 to 2015, love became the biggest reason officially for murder cases. There are 38.585 murder cases, 79.189 suicides due to love, and 260 thousand female abduction cases due to marriage motives. With these figures, in India there are 7 cases of murder, 14 cases of suicide, and 47 cases of kidnapping because of the process of elopement, whereas cases of death due to terror in India in the same period reached 20,000 civilians and security forces. Data shows that the Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh regions have the highest number of murder cases in the name of love. Usually the reason for the murder or suicide caused by rejected love that results in violence, a sad love story so suicide, or anger in a relationship due to class and caste in India. Men themselves according to data are indeed three times more likely to experience suicide deaths than women in India. One explanation is that men, especially at younger ages, tend to be more impulsive and more likely to commit suicide attempts in more deadly ways (such as using firearms).

Access to lethal facilities during a crisis someone wants to commit suicide is a major contributing factor to suicide. Therefore, the government of India suggests to not leaving people who want to commit suicide alone with dangerous drugs, sharp objects, firearms, rope and the like. The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention recommends that all people immediately invite people around them who show signs of wanting to commit suicide, talk openly. Many people think suicide is a taboo and no need to discussed, but in fact, the people who want to commit suicide need to talk to them who can help and avoid them from the reckless action.

Many Deaths in India Caused by Love

Of course, not everyone in India understands psychology, psychiatry or mental health science. However, everyone needs to keep talking to the people around them who want to kill themselves. The medical world recognizes this kind of thing as ‘broken heart syndrome’. This syndrome can occur because someone has experienced severe stress due to the hurt he experienced. In addition, heartbreak due to death can also be a cause. The risk of death for people who are broken heart considered greater. Medical data said the risk of death often occurs in the first 6 months after a broken heart. From the results of these studies, it is highly recommended for anyone who is experiencing a broken heart so as not to hide his or her feelings. You can tell the closest people slowly. This believed to be a way to reduce the stress burden that is in mind that will decrease the number of deaths caused by love in India.

The World Should Learn to Love Tigers through Indian methods
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The World Should Learn to Love Tigers through Indian methods

In 2016, WWF and the Global Tiger Forum announced that there were 3,890 tigers around the world that were still alive. This number has increased because in 2010 there were only 3,200 tigers in the wild. According to The New York Times, countries such as India and Nepal have succeeded in increasing the tiger population through conservation efforts and the addition of territories when conducting national surveys. There were 2,226 and 198 tigers living in India and Nepal. India Times reported that India began paying attention to tigers in 1973 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi launched the Project Tiger program. At that time, there were only 268 tigers in the country. The rise of hunting, conflict with humans, and trophy hunting or hunting activities for recreation make fewer tiger populations. One of Project Tiger’s agenda is to ensure that tiger habitat in the form of a nature reserve remains. In 1973 to 1974, a total of five nature reserves were determined by the government.

However, over time the number increased to 50 nature reserves. The government views the need to expand tiger habitat because these animals have extensive cruising. In addition, this step was taken to reduce conflict with humans which is one of the main causes of reduced tiger population. Not only that, the Indian government also tightened the security of nature reserves from hunting activities. Living tigers are also marked by a tracking collar so that animal activity can be monitored. Nature reserves that become tiger habitat must be free from livestock and human populations. Relocation of residents from the core nature reserve area was carried out and this activity became the most important program of Project Tiger which is now handled by The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). With this step, the tiger prey in the nature reserve is no longer reduced due to human activities so that the large cat population is increasing.

The World Should Learn to Love Tigers through Indian methodAs with India, Nepal has long paid more attention to the conservation of tigers and wild animals. NTCA said that efforts to save the animals began when the National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act was created in 1950. Prabin Poudel in The Diplomat said more than 23 percent of the total area in Nepal was designated as a protected area. There are 12 national parks, one nature reserve, one hunting area, and six conservation areas. Each national park in this case has a buffer zone or buffer zone that serves to protect the core conservation area from human negative actions.

Potential Land Management Policies in India
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Potential Land Management Policies in India

The latest satellite data from 2000 to 2017 shows a greening pattern that is very prominent in China and India and overlaps with other countries’ agricultural land. The study, uploaded in Nature Sustainability, uses the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of the United States Space and Space Agency (NASA) that uses satellite technology to document the surface of the earth every day. The green vegetation area shown by the satellite in this study was caused by direct factors and indirect factors. The direct factor is management of land use by humans while indirect factors such as climate change, fertilization of carbon dioxide, precipitation of nitrogen, and recovery from natural disturbances.

Satellite data shows that globally one third of the vegetation area is green and only five percent is brown. 6.6 percent of the green vegetation area is in China. China contributes 25 percent to the increase in global greening efforts. China and India, two developing countries, contribute the most in efforts to reforest the land. Greening in China comes from forests at 42 percent and agricultural land by 32 percent while in India most of it comes from agricultural land at 82 percent and forests at only 4.4 percent. The study sees China has implemented several large-scale programs to restore and protect its forests. While in India the production of fertilizer and irrigation use in agricultural land makes this country increase its food production.

Potential Land Management Policies in IndiaHowever, it is not known how long the earth will be green because there are signs that explain it will not last long. Some new research says when the planet starts to warm up and the soil is dry, the plants will lack water and cause a decrease in plant growth. Fertilizing carbon dioxide and climate change is still important. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is still responsible for the green changes seen in 17 years. Although studies from show that human land use such as forest and agricultural land management has a greater impact than previously thought. This finding is somewhat difficult for scientists to use computer models to study the earth. Fertilizing carbon dioxide is relatively easy to calculate with equations even though there are several other disorders. Human land use is rather random and very difficult to predict.

Advantages of Trump’s Immigrant Policy for Technology in India
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Advantages of Trump’s Immigrant Policy for Technology in India

Seeing India’s long-standing literacy culture, it’s no wonder that today India is known as a country that produces reliable programmers for technology companies in the United States. Former United States ambassador to India Richard Verma estimates that 70 percent of the 85,000 H-1B visas are issued for Indian workers in 2016. The H-1B visa is a visa that is popular with high-ability foreign workers, especially programmers and the like. By pocketing an H-1B visa, a foreign worker can at least work full-time in the United States for six years. To get the visa, there must be a company that wants to become a sponsor and is willing to hire foreign workers, at least $ 10,000.

Now, there are also some giant technology companies in the United States headed by people of Indian descent. The most famous is Satya Nadella who became CEO of Microsoft and Sundar Pichai CEO of Google. Many talented Indian talents who migrated to the United States were none other because the country’s immigration policy was quite friendly to immigrants. In fact, as Obama once said aloud that “we will always be a nation of immigrants.” But everything has changed since Trump’s policy with the slogan “American’s first”.

Sundar Pichai CEO of GooglIndeed, the prospective nomads of India in the field of technology, do not need to worry about Trump’s executive policies that are discriminatory for immigrants. Reliable programmers are now needed on almost all lines of life. Non-tech companies also need this expertise to handle their services, which are increasingly dependent on the internet. In addition, with difficulty entering the United States for technology workers from India, India will get the best talents that will work for local companies there. They certainly will contribute the best ability to build the world of Indian technology. In addition, The New York Times also calls India “the new China for American internet-based companies.” Many US technology companies will make their base in India. That way, high-skilled workers will stay in India, no need to go far to find work.

Cashless Transaction Lessons from India
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Cashless Transaction Lessons from India

Paytm is a rising non-cash payment system in India that serves payments for almost all types of transaction needs in modern stores to traditional markets. In India, the muddy market for vegetables has penetrated the Paytm network with special-marked merchant stalls, something that is not easy to apply in other countries. This application includes easy to apply in the field including on the market. Users who open the Paytm application on smart phones only need to scan the QR code installed in the store or merchant when shopping. All transactions, can be completed by Paytm. This is better known as a cashless society. This term is not new in the world. The benefits are positive, in terms of ease of transaction, security, and of course efficiency. How much paper can be saved by reducing the currency circulating in the community later. Easy operation, made Paytm services increase as the Indian government policy conducted demonstration in November 2016. Initially demonetization was carried out to limit the movement of black money which became a major program to eradicate corruption by PM Modi.

Demonetization made the banknotes worth 500 and 1,000 rupees removed or withdrawn by the government. The rupee with two fractions controls 86 percent of the circulation of money in India. Paytm aka “Pay Through Mobile,” successfully took the impact of the policy and made it the largest digital wallet in India with 220 million users. Paytm Utilization has taken root in remote areas in India. There are 82,746 traders in remote areas of India who are connected to Paytm. Of course this is a rapid progress, because in 2012 86.6 percent of transactions in India were still made by cash. Statista noted that in 2017 the total value of digital payment transactions in India is estimated to reach $ 43.8 billion.

Cashless Transaction Lessons from IndiaaIndia has quickly succeeded in switching to digital transactions. In general, India presents two methods of payment or cashless transactions or non-cash transactions. First, utilizing USSD, the technology we usually use to check pulses * 123 #. Second, using UPI technology, aka the Unified Payment Interface, this technology is used in the Paytm application. Paytm, obviously not the only digital wallet in India, the rest is Aadhar pay. Aadhar pay is somewhat special, this digital wallet was directly promoted by agen bola and PM Modi.  This application has transaction service capabilities, where users simply put their fingers when transacting. Unfortunately Aadhar pay is far behind compared to Paytm. Paytm is moving faster. This application successfully obtained permission from the Indian central bank, Reverse Bank of India. Paytm can operate like other conventional banks, but has some limitations of banking functions.

When Cows Are Safer Than Women in India
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When Cows Are Safer Than Women in India

In general, it turns out that acts of violence often occur in India, especially women. Violence not only befalls travelers, but also on local women. The crime cases that are rampant among women in India are rape. The case of rape which has attracted much public attention is what happened to Aruna Shanbaug who works as a nurse. He experienced sexual violence brutally by Sohanlal Bhartha Walmiki in the basement of the Hospital in India. Aruna Shanbaug experiences blindness and damage to the brain that causes coma for more than 40 years. The Aruna family even wanted to inject dead to end Aruna’s suffering, but the law in India did not legalize the practice of lethal injection.

When Cows Are Safer Than Women in IndiaVarious crimes against women later inspired a Calcutta artist, Sujatro Ghosh made a new project. The project is to compare trends in protection of cows and high violence against women. The project was launched by showing women wearing cow masks posing in public places such as on trains or relaxing at home. In India, in order to protect cows, most people are willing to commit violence and that is considered reasonable and justified. Various methods are used to protect cows. After Narendra Modi became prime minister, the protection of cattle was further enhanced. Penalties for smuggling cows or slaughtering are also strengthened since Modi took the lead.

On the other hand, women are increasingly insecure. As an indication, almost every day there are women who experience rape in India. The 2015 Indian Times report mentions 34,651 rape cases in India. Gang rape reached 2,113 cases in that year. Crimes against women such as sexual harassment included being forced to take off their clothes, be spotted, and stalking reached 84,222 cases. That is a registered case. Abduction of women reached 59,277 cases in 2015. Forcing women to marry is the main reason for the number of abductions of women in India. In 2015, almost 54 percent of female abductions were made to force them to get married. New Delhi is the city with the highest crime against women. Another city is Assam, which is in second place. In a World Economic Forum survey, New Delhi was included in the list of the fourth most unsafe cities for a woman. These situations underlie Ghosh to juxtapose trends in the protection of cattle, animals that are worshiped by many residents, with increasing violence against women. Cows in India are in fact safer than being women there.